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    <br> 2. On the Temporary Internet Files tab, click the View Files button. In networking, the data which is being transmitted through the internet is sent via small segments/chunks which are later translated into bits, and the packets get routed to their endpoint (destination) through different networking devices i.e. routers or switches. Most of these options allow you to pay for each episode you are interested in or pay for the whole season. Clearly explain what you are unhappy or concerned about, make it clear what you want to be done, and allow the electrician to resolve things. 2. Check the boxes next to the specific types of history you want to clear. Media reporting on specific events, such as the US Supreme Court rulings or electoral campaigns, has been shown to vary depending on the financial interests of their corporate owners (e.g. Bailard, 2016; Dunaway & Lawrence, 2015; Hughes & Lawson, 2005; Markus & Charnysh, 2017). Wegenast and Schneider’s (2017) study of deposits of natural resources in sub-Saharan Africa reveals that state repression as answer to societal dissent is particularly likely if oil fields are majority-owned by international companies (cf. The data also lends itself for network analysis, enabling to follow the development of specific actors or companies across countries and over time<br>>
    <br>> However, and as Vendil Pallin’s (2017) case study on Russia discloses, a government’s leverage over ISPs depends on its relationship with the owner of these companies. Until he filed and won the defamation case, I doubt if in a country of over 1.4 billion, more than 100 people named Purnesh Modi in the top 10 Modis defamed by Gandhi’s statement. Rahul Gandhi’s disqualification came a day after Chief Judicial Magistrate H.H. TOSCO enables cross-sectional, time-series large-N analysis of various economic, social and political determinants and effects of ISP ownership. It has not only driven change on a global scale; its spread also had a profound impact on the social sciences. On the one hand, political scientists emphasize the potential of modern information and communication technology (ICT) to foster anti-government movements, enable democratic change and promote good governance as well as economic development (e.g., Acemoglu & Robinson, 2000; Alozie et al., 2011; Freund & Weinhold, 2002; Howard & Mazaheri, 2009; Vu, 2011); on the other hand, they demonstrate that ICT can enable repressive regimes to impose further restrictions on civil liberties and may encourage corruptive behaviour (e.g., Gohdes, 2015; King et al., frederiksen-clemmensen-3.federatedjournals.com 2013; Lutscher et al., 2020; Rød & Weidmann, 2015; Sutherland, 2014). Taking into account the role of companies and, in particular the differential effects of their ownership, may help explain the observed patterns, according to the general argument that motivates the data collection presented here.
    We subsequently demonstrate its usefulness by re-visiting research on the effects of internet provision on a regime’s democratic quality (Rød & Weidmann, 2015) and its level of corruption (Bailard, 2009) when including data from TOSCO. Along with a thorough discussion of the conceptualization and operationalization of ownership as a variable, the TOSCO dataset enables comparative large-N analysis of the determinants and effects of varying ownership structures and identities in the transforming context of 49 African countries, 2000-2019. We demonstrate its usefulness with descriptive statistics and regression analyses using replication data from research on the internet’s democratizing and corruption-reducing effects. Focusing on the African continent, TOSCO allows addressing key issues in a context in which the internet is increasingly used not only for communication and information purposes but also for e-commerce and ICT-based public services such as e-health. Noor’s continuing service may be related to anticipated economic losses if access to its customers was curtailed (Le Monde, 2011) as this mid-sized Kuwait-based private company services the high-profile businesses and key Egyptian economic institutions, including the country’s stock exchange (Glanz & Markoff, 2011). The british Vodafone, in turn, not only blocked access to the internet during the uprising, but also forwarded its Egyptian customers pro-government messages (Garside, 2011). In reaction to strong public criticism, Vodafone met with civil society representatives, changed its leadership and developed a human rights-oriented policy (Vodafone, 2021). These anecdotes illustrate the differences in the behaviour of companies in specific situations, even if the regulatory framework is the same in the country of operatio<br>/p>
    ‘Power-over’, in turn, refers to the means and resources a shareholder needs to achieve these goals, such as the voting power defined by the number of shares held in a company. The “two faces of power” (Bachrach & Baratz, 1970) are related in that a shareholder’s power-over can define the extent to which it may actually be able to use its power-to; yet, in some circumstances a shareholder might be in a position to influence corporate strategies and public policies even if it holds minority shares only, precisely because of the capacities associated with its owner identity. Yet, the cross-sectional, time-series data at company-level needed to systematically explore these and other questions is, to date, largely missing. Some ISPs spell out data limits clearly while others require a little more research. The potential for using this capacity may depend on the nature of those who own ISPs. In order to capture dynamics associated with varying ownership structures, we draw on the contemporary discussion of political power that revolve around Pitkin’s (1972, 277) conceptual distinction between the power over, i.e. influence, and the power to, i.e. capacity (Göhler, 2009, 35). Transferred to the sphere of corporate ownership, we understand ‘power-to’ as the ability of a shareholder to achieve a certain goal by setting the corporate strategy; which goals are to be pursued depends on the identities of t<br>hareholders.

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