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    <br> Amidst the government-ordered internet shutdown in Egypt in January 2011, one internet service provider, Noor Telecom, has been running nearly uninterrupted. On the one hand, political scientists emphasize the potential of modern information and communication technology (ICT) to foster anti-government movements, enable democratic change and promote good governance as well as economic development (e.g., Acemoglu & Robinson, 2000; Alozie et al., 2011; Freund & Weinhold, 2002; Howard & Mazaheri, 2009; Vu, 2011); on the other hand, they demonstrate that ICT can enable repressive regimes to impose further restrictions on civil liberties and may encourage corruptive behaviour (e.g., Gohdes, 2015; King et al., 2013; Lutscher et al., 2020; Rød & Weidmann, 2015; Sutherland, 2014). Taking into account the role of companies and, in particular the differential effects of their ownership, may help explain the observed patterns, according to the general argument that motivates the data collection presented here. Holderness, 2009; Nofsinger & Sias, 1999; Thomsen & Pedersen, 2000). These ideal-typical shareholder types vary not only in their goals and risk propensities but also differ in their capacity to control the management and thus in their power to achieve the preferred results, as summarized in Table 1 (cf.<br>
    <br> As “delegated monitors” (Dam & Scholtens, 2012, 236), financial-institutional owners keep an “arm’s-length relationship” (Thomsen & Pedersen, 2000, 693) with the management. When looking for the best internet package for your needs, it is important to keep in mind what you want and need from the package. You need a dish antenna and some quite expensive equipment to receive images from them. This might mean providing access to some programs and software, but you need to be careful because there might be restrictions on what external people can see or do within the company. Banks need files to be in a certain format. In consequence, corporate owners commonly have the relevant expertise and know-how that allows them to not only contribute financial resources but to also provide managerial expertise as well as technical and organisational resources (Douma et al., 2006, 643; Sur et al., 2013, 379). Corporate owners are portrayed as generally risk-neutral but as cautious in their investment strategies (Cannizzaro & Weiner, 2018). They do not enter and leave a market rapidly but expand activities following long-term business-plans. Corporate owners are conventional business corporations that pursue traditional economic goals, notably profit maximation, and are interested in firm-specific concerns, such as the generation of capability or the “uninterrupted supply of goods and resources” (Sur et al., 2013, 378). Telecommunications companies tend to invest in firms related to just click the following internet page telecommunications sector<br>>
    <br>> A larger party may require you to ditch the reusable towels altogether and opt for disposable ones instead – decorative sets are available at many bed and bath stores. If nobody answers the telephone all the Installers may assume that no one is at home & may not come. With on-demand streaming you can watch one at a time, or “binge-watch” several in a row. It is one of America’s ‘Big 5′ in the tech world. The “two faces of power” (Bachrach & Baratz, 1970) are related in that a shareholder’s power-over can define the extent to which it may actually be able to use its power-to; yet, in some circumstances a shareholder might be in a position to influence corporate strategies and public policies even if it holds minority shares only, precisely because of the capacities associated with its owner identity. Whether you have a security system installed at your home, office, or any other location, gDMSS Lite ensures you are always connected and aware of the happenings in the monitored areas.<br>>
    Providing the autonomous system (AS) number for each ISP in the dataset, as well as the organization ID assigned by the internet registry AFRINIC, allows exploring the relationship between ISP ownership and internet activity measured at the level of AS, among other relationships. These studies corroborate systematic relationships between owner identities and the outcome of interest. Drawing on business studies, we distinguish between four main types of owner identities in our dataset: the state, a single individual or family, a private corporation, and a financial institution (cf. Along with a thorough discussion of the conceptualization and operationalization of ownership as a variable, the TOSCO dataset enables comparative large-N analysis of the determinants and effects of varying ownership structures and identities in the transforming context of 49 African countries, 2000-2019. We demonstrate its usefulness with descriptive statistics and regression analyses using replication data from research on the internet’s democratizing and corruption-reducing effects. In order to capture dynamics associated with varying ownership structures, we draw on the contemporary discussion of political power that revolve around Pitkin’s (1972, 277) conceptual distinction between the power over, i.e. influence, and the power to, i.e. capacity (Göhler, 2009, 35). Transferred to the sphere of corporate ownership, we understand ‘power-to’ as the ability of a shareholder to achieve a certain goal by setting the corporate strategy; which goals are to be pursued depends on the identities of the sh<br>olders.

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