Impact du Changement Climatique sur les Principales Cultures Alimentaires de base et des Agriculteurs, des Stratégies d'Adaptation dans l'Atacora.

  1. INTRODUCTION

Agriculture is the biggest single industry in many developing countries of the world. Benin is a West African country in which agriculture plays an important economic role. The agricultural sector employs about 70% of the population and contributes to 39% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Awoye, 2015) of Benin. It also provides about 88% of the country’s export earnings (Awoye, 2015). The lack of modern farming technologies, poor soil, land degradation, and the rapid population growth constitute the challenges that Benin agriculture is facing. In Benin, the farmers rely highly on the rain-fed agriculture for crop productions. The high dependence on rain-fed agriculture combined with low socioeconomic development expose subsistence agriculture farmers to external shocks such as climate variability and climate change impacts. Empirical evidence reveals that the increasing of global temperature is likely to boost agricultural production in the temperate region, and it is expected to reduce yields in the tropical regions of the world (WTO –UNEP, 2009). Studies conducted by Afouda (1990), Houndénou (1999), Ogouwalé (2006)and Boko (1988) cited by Tidjani (2012) , revealed that there is increasing of minimum temperature and agricultural season length is shortening in Benin. Some regional climate models predict a decrease of annual rainfall up to 30% by 2050 in Benin with a significant within- region differences (Paeth et al., 2008). This change will decrease yield production already challenged by limited access to capital, markets, infrastructure and technology. Benin has already experienced food insecurity and climate change will exacerbate it through the increase in frequency of adverse weather events. The Northwest part of Benin (Atacora) is characterized by a unimodal rainfall regime (peak in August). This means the district is more heavily exposed to the impact of climate change. A well-known study in this respect is the one carried out on farmers’ perception and impact of climate change on production and yam varietal diversity in Northwest of Benin (Loko et al., 2013). Fewresearch works have been conducted in that on the impacts of climate change on the major staple food crops and farmers’ adaptation strategies to this change in the district. This present study examines the impact of climate change on major staple food crops (yam, maize, sorghum, and rice and bean productions) and farmers’ adaptation strategies to this change in Atacora. The section 2 explaines the methodogy used to achieve the goal of this study. The section 3 shows the results of the analysis.

  1. MATERIALS and METHODS

The study area is the Atacora, located in northwest Benin, it counts nine communes, which are: Natitingou, Kérou, Kouandé, Péhunco, Cobly, Boukoumbé, Matéri, Toucountouna, and Tanguiéta. It shares borders with the Republic of Burkina-Faso in the North, a Donga district in the South, Alibori and Borgou district in the East and Republic of Togo to the West (Figure 1). This district is characterized by a unimodalrainfall distribution (peak in August). The rainfall is unpredictable and irregular with an average between 800 and 950 mm per year (Dansi, Adoukonou-sagbadja, &Vodouhe, 2010). The wet season starts from late mid-June to late October while April-May is the dry season. The landscape in this region is composed of Rocky Mountains, with tropical ferruginous soils and wetland (Dansi et al., 2010). The territory of Atacora consists of 772,262 inhabitants unequally distributed in 384 villages (RGPH-4, 2013). The mean population density is 38 inhabitants/km2 (RGPH-4, 2013). The district is inhabited by seven ethnic groups Bariba, Berba, Ditamari, Lamba, Natimba, Wama and Bialli (Dansi and al., 2010). The main livelihood of the population is farming.

For this study, five communes (Boukoumbe, Cobly, Kérou, Matéri, and Toucontouna) have been selected based on the ethnolinguistic map of Benin and the agricultural potential of each commune. Two villages were chosen per commune. An exploratory survey was conducted to identify the two villages retained for this study. Within each village the interviews were conducted to identify the major staple food crops grown and communities’ adaptive measures developed to cope with the adverse impacts of climate change in the five communes. The temperature (°C), and rainfall (mm) data from 1986 to 2016 was obtained from the National Meteorological Service of Benin while data on major staple food crops for 1986 to 2016 was collected from CARDER (Centre d’Action Régional de Dévelopement Rural) and INSAE (Institut National de Statistique et de l’Analyse Economique). The total annual crop productions of five communes for each major staple food crops grown were obtained by calculating the sum of each crop production of five communes. The rainfall and temperature anomalies were calculated for all the years from the use of the long-term mean, yearly mean and the standard deviation using equation below:

φ = x- x ̅ / σ

Where φrepresents the anomaly value of rainfall and temperature, x is the actual value of each parameter (temperature and rainfall), x ̅ is the long term mean value of each parameter (temperature and rainfall), σ is the standard deviation.

For each major staple food crops the multiple linear regressions model were realized to see their associations with temperature and rainfall. A statistical test was performed using the Software R software. Also, the Excel spreadsheet was used to design the figures.

The model is specified asWhere, Y represents yam, maize, bean, sorghum and rice outputs at time I, x Temperature 1, x Rainfalls 1,μ Stochastic term β β and β = constants

Figure 1. Map of Atacora District

  1. RESULTS

3.1. Climatic condition in Atacora

Observed rainfall and temperature trends

Figure 2.Standardized anomalies of rainfall and temperature in Atacora

The analysis of figure 2 shows the variations trends of temperature and rainfall distribution in Atacora from 1986-2016. Between 1986 to 1997, the temperature trend have been fluctuating and decreasing with values ranging from -1.85 to -0.35°C while a positive trend of temperature was observed from 1998 to 2016. For the precipitation, the positive trend was recorded over the period 1986 to 2004 and the reverse in trend was observed 2004 to 2016.

3.2. Farmers’ strategies for adaptation to climate change in ATACORA

Farmers have adopted different strategies to adapt to climate change and climate variability. Farming is the main occupation for the majority of the sample households. Based on the household survey data collected from 422 households, the farmers reported that they are using different adaptation strategies to reduce the negative impact of climate change. Thirteen (3.08%) farmers use agroforestry (nere’, Shea, tree species), sixty-five farmers shift their cropping calendars (15.4%), fifty-nine farmers (13.98%) exploit the shallows for their crop production, fifty-five farmers use mixed cropping(13.03%), seventy-five farmers apply chemical fertilizers and pesticides (17.78%), hundred-five farmers adopt short season crop with high yield (24.89%), thirty-eight farmers use agricultural expansion (9%), and twelve farmers (2.84%) breed animals to compensate crop failure due to climate variability (Figure 3). The strategy used by each farmers, has a specific purpose, although the ultimate and common goal is adaptation to climate change. Some farmers who practice agro-forestry (integrate trees and crops) had a deep knowledge of the benefits of such practice: preventing soil erosion, reducing losses of water, availability of organic matter and nutrients, reducing the amount of agricultural insect pests and associated diseases etc. The mixed cropping frequently mentioned by farmers was: maize–sorghum, sorghum-millet, maize–groundnut, maize–bean, maize–millet–sorghum, and maize -cassava. It should also be noted that farmers associate these practices with a concern for preserving food and nutritional security of the household. Farmers are seeking to increase the chances of guaranteeing a minimum of products after harvesting. “If one fails, the other can succeed,” said the respondents. Farmers used short season crop with high yield, and shallows as an adaptation strategy to reduce the adverse effect of climate change. They also used chemical fertilizers to increase crop productivity and pesticides to control pests and diseases. In addition, some farmers have adopted small ruminant and poultry farming to diversify their sources of income.

Figure 3.

Farmers’ strategies for adaptation to climate change

3.3. Agricultural productions in Atacora

Yield of major staple food crops in Atacora

Figure 4 shows the evolution of yield of the main agricultural commodities over the thirty years. The figure shows that yam, rice and maize have dominated the increases in production over time. The yield increases for sorghum and the produced beanhas been slow as compared to the yam, rice and maize production. This has happened as a result of the strategy adaptation adopted by the farmers to cope with the negative impacts of climate variation. As strategy, the farmers reducing crop area of long crop seasons (sorghum) and increasing cultivated land of short season crop with high yield (maize and rice). Bean areas have not increased because of theincreasing pests and diseases for this crop. Yam production has increased mostly as a result of area expansion. Despite the fact that there is no introduction of new breeds of yam-seedlings, the cultivated land of this culture is expanded as the main means to maintain the level of yam production because of the important role that this crop plays in cultural practices. This is a reflection of the lack of support for agricultural production of yam, bean and sorghum, the lack of inputs and services to support the intensification of these crops production systems.

Figure 4.Yield of major staple food crops in Atacora over thirty years

  • Relationship between climate variables and crop yields

Several recent studies (Jarvis et al., 2012; Rosenthal & Ort, 2012; and Liu et al., 2008) indicate that climate change in Africa will have variable impacts on crops, with both production losses and gains possible. The multiple regressions were used to see the associations of climatic variables with crop yields in Atacora. The results revealed that the rainfall has significant effect on the output of maize and sorghum at four percent (4%) and for bean at three percent (3%) with a negative coefficient of -0.78, -0.23 and -0.31(Table 1). This result shows that if the rainfall increases by one unit (1), then maize, sorghum and bean outputs will decrease by 0.23, 0.31, and 0.78 kilograms respectively in the long run. Rice and yam outputs show that the temperature has a significant effect on rice and yam with a positive coefficient of 62.2 and 70.5 respectively implying that if temperature increases by one unit rice and yam outputs will increase by 62.2 and 70.5 kilograms respectively (Table 1).

Table 1.Multiple regression results according to climate variables and crop yields

Dependent variables

Independent variables

Coefficient

Std. Error

t value

Pr(>|t|

Rice

Intercept

-144.1

162.25

-3.26

0.002**

Rainfall

-0.45

1.45

-0.31

0.75ns

Temperature

62.25 

17.5  

3.55

0.001**

 

     

Maize

Intercept

2503.67

5199.51

0.48

0.63ns

 

Rainfall

-0.78

0.37

-2.10

0.04 *

 

Temperature

 -2.38

150.77

-0.01

0.98ns

 

     

Sorghum

Intercept

4072.56

1543.91

2.63

0.01 *

Rainfall

-0.23

0.11

-2.09

0.04 *

Temperature

-88.11

44.76 

-1.96

0.05 ns

 

     

Bean

Intercept

-511.03

2026.53

-0.25

0.80ns

Rainfall

-0.31

0.14

-2.17

0.03*

Temperature

53.08

58.76

0.90

0.37ns

 

     

Yam

Intercept

-118.47

79.44

-1.49

0.14

Temperature

70.56 

31.16  

2.26  

0.03 *

Rainfall

1.49

1.05

0.3860.38

0.70

Note: *= Significant at 5%    ns= non-significant

 

CONCLUSION

The study examines the effects on temperature and rainfall variability on yam, maize, bean, sorghum and rice output in Atacora from 1986 to 2016 and farmers’ adaptation strategies to this change. Results from the study revealed that there is an increase in temperature and decreasing rainfall pattern in the study area. Also, this study discovers that temperature significantly affects outputs of yam and rice while rainfall has significant effect on the output of maize, bean, sorghum over the period under study. In response to climate variation, farmers adjust their cropping calendars by shifting either forward or backward the timing of land preparation and seedling, adopt short season crop with high yield, use the shallows for agricultural productions, use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, reducing land of long crop seasons and increasing cultivated land of short duration high yielding crops. The use of chemical fertilizers release the nitrous oxide into the atmosphere which is the most important contribution of GHGs related to agriculture. As the population continues to grow and progress is made in achieving food and nutrition security for the population, chemical fertilizer use will increase for the foreseeable future. This will increase concentrations of nitrous oxide in the atmosphere and will cause a heavy strain on the environment as well as on the quality of the food produced.The problems of climate change are already with us, therefore the private sectors and Beninese government should focus on improved agricultural productivity by developing technology which will not contribute to changes in climate, but increased production through proper funding and implementation. With the decreasing rainfall amount and increasing of temperature, Beninese government should start to invest on irrigation farming in this locality rather than relying more on rain-fed agriculture that is highly unreliable and becoming more unpredictable. In addition, farmers should be sensitized about the negative effects of the long-term application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides on the environment, human health and soil fertility.

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Awoye, O. H. R. (2015). The implication of Future Climate Change on Agricultural production in Tropical West Africa. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), Porto-Novo (Benin), 1-189.I

Ayanlade, A. (2010). Impacts of climate variability on tuber crops in Guinea Savanna part of Nigeria: a GIS approach. Journal of Geography and …, 2(1), 27–35. Retrieved from http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jgg/article/download/7274/5762

Dansi, A., Adoukonou-sagbadja, H., &Vodouhe, R. (2010). Diversity, conservation and related wild species of Fonio millet ( Digitaria spp.) in the northwest of Benin. Genet Resour Crop Evol 57:827–839.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-009-9522-3

Ejikeme, O., &Akpabio, E. M. (2017). The geography of yam cultivation in southern Nigeria: exploring its social meanings and cultural functions. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 4 (1), 28‐35 https:doi.org/10.1016/j.jef.2027.02.004

 

Eregha, P. B., Babatolu, J. S., &Akinnubi, R. T. (2014). Climate change and crop production in Nigeria: An error correction modelling approach. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 4(2), 297–311. Retrieved from http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2s2.084897106987&partnerID=40&md5=333625e2e579aba6c9ef15ea1790a8f3

 

Jarvis, A., Ramirez-Villegas, J.,  Campo, B.V.H., & Navarro-Racines, C. (2012). Is cassava the answer to African

climate change adaptation? Tropical Plant Biology, 5(1), pp.9-29.

 

Liu, J. , Fritz, S. ,. vanWesenbeeck, C.F.A, Fuchs, M. , You, L., Obersteiner, M. , & Yang, H. (2008). A spatially explicit assessment of current and future hotspots of hunger in sub-Saharan Africa in the context of global change. Global and Planetary Change, 64(3-4), pp. 222-235.

 

Loko, Y. L., Dansi, A., Agre, A. P., Akpa, N., Assogba, P., Dansi, M., &Sanni, K. A. A. (2013).Perceptions paysannes et impacts des changements climatiques sur la production et la diversité variétale de l ’ igname dans la zone aride du nord-ouest du Bénin, 7(April), 672–695.

 

Mikova, K. (2015). Effect of Climate Change on Crop Production in Rwanda. Earth Sciences, 4(3), 120. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.earth.20150403.15

Paeth, H., Hall, N.M.J., Gaertner, M.A., Dominguez Alonso, M., Moumouni, S., Polcher, J., Ruti, P.M., Fink, A.H., Gosset, M., Lebel, T., Gaye, A.T., Rowell, D.P., Moufouma-Okia, W., Jacob, D., Rockel, B., Giorgi, F., regional downscaling of West African precipitation. Atmospheric Science Letters 12, 75–82.

Pi, A., Bc, A., &Bogbenda, A. (2017). Simulating the effect of climate change on the output of major crops in Benue State Nigeria, 5(4), 594–602.

Regh, T., Bossa, A. Y., &Diekkrüger, B. (2014). Scenario-based simulations of the impacts of rainfall variability and management options on maize production in Benin, 9(46), 3393–3410. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2014.8757

 

Recensement Général de la Population et de L’Habitation (RGPH4). (2013). Effectifs de la Population des Villages et Quartiers de ville du Benin. Republique du Benin, Mai, 2-83.

Rosenthal, D. M., &Ort, D. R. (2012).Examining cassava’s potential to enhance food security under climate change.

Tropical Plant Biology, 5(1), pp. 30-38.

Tidjani, M.A., &Akponikpe,P.B.I. (2012).Evaluation des stratégies paysannes d’adaptation aux changements climatiques : cas de la production du maïs au nord-bénin. African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 20, 425–441.

 

World Trade Organization & the United Nations Environmental (WTO-UNEP) Report (2009), On Trade and Climate Change. Switzerland. World Trade Organization. www.wto.org/english/res_e/booksp_e/trade_climate_change_e.pdf

 

Uger, F. I. (2017). Impact of Climate Variability on Yam Production in Benue State: an Empirical Analysis, 4(2), 14–23.

Conservation : En RDC, bientôt l’on peut payer près de 3000 $ et tuer légalement un éléphant

En République démocratique du Congo, la conservation risque de perdre son sens dans la mesure où un décret en gestation pourrait permettre au chasseur de se taper un éléphant entier en payant sa taxe de 2 885 dollars américains. De même, il peut consommer la viande d’un gorille entier en s’acquittant légalement de sa taxe de 1 925 dollars américains. Cette mesure du gouvernement a été dénoncée lors d’une communication du directeur général de l’ICCN, Cosma

« Avec cette mesure visant à maximiser les revenus, l’Institut congolais pour la conservation de la nature (ICCN) ne pourra pas faire son travail de préservation des espèces en danger de disparition », a déclaré Cosma Wilungula.

Dans une décision conjointe ce mois-ci, les ministères de l’Environnement et des Finances de la RDC ont déclaré que tuer, posséder ou vendre des espèces protégées serait autorisé moyennant le paiement d’une taxe.

« Il en coûte maintenant 2 885 $ pour tuer un éléphant de forêt, tandis que le montant pour tuer, manger ou vendre un gorille de montagne est de 1 925 $. Ce décret supprime (le crime) le trafic illégal d’espèces protégées », a déploré Monsieur Wilungula, avertissant que les bailleurs de fonds ne paieraient pas environ 32 millions de dollars utilisés pour la conservation chaque année si la règle était maintenue.

Dans cette logique, l’Union européenne qui met des paquets dans la conservation dans les cinq aires protégées de la RDC continuerait-elle à s’y investir ? Rien n’est moins rassurant si la RDC maintient sa décision de légaliser le braconnage dans ses aires protégées., pour renflouer les caisses de l’Etat.

« Les paiements d’impôts relativement bas créeraient une incitation au profit pour le braconnage, l’ivoire d’éléphant coûtant jusqu’à 600 dollars par kilogramme (2,2 livres) sur le marché local et un bébé gorille d’une valeur de 100 000 dollars », a informé le directeur général de l’ICCN.

Notons par ailleurs que le Comité du patrimoine mondial de l’UNESCO a retiré le vaste parc national de la Salonga en RDC d’une liste de sites menacés, louant les efforts de conservation, notamment pour les éléphants de forêt et les bonobos.

Alfredo Prince NTUMBA, avec AFP

 

Wilungula, ce jeudi 22 juillet, à Kinshasa

NEW DEAL FOR NATURE AND PEOPLE: BOOKLET OF BEST PRACTICES

The 2020 Living Planet Index shows that global populations of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and fish have suffered an average 68% decline in less than half a century (from 1970 to 2016). The main cause of this dramatic decline is habitat loss and degradation, including deforestation, driven by how we as humanity produce food. Nature powers industry and enterprise but we are using up ‘natural capital’ and degrading natural systems faster than nature can replenish and restore them, exceeding Earth’s overall bio capacity by 58% according to Ecological Foot printing. Over this decade, we have an incredible opportunity to make an ambitious global commitment to restore nature through the New Deal for Nature and People. We believe that people and nature can thrive together – we all have a part to play. Only a global coalition of the willing can make all this happen. In order to address those challenges, African Network of Young Leaders for Peace and Sustainable Development set in 2020 the New deal for Nature and people Coalition of civil society organizations. Under the leadership of African network of Young Leaders for Peace and Sustainable Development, African youths and civil society organizations have drafted and started the implementation of two regional position papers on COVID19 and pandemics and towards a strong post 2020 Global Biodiversity Framework for a green growth resumption in Africa and in the world. The ND4NPC Best practices booklet aims to valorise best practices of civil society organisations in this frame. The ND4NPC booklet will be issued every trimester of the year.

 

READ THE FULL BOOKLET HERE

AFRICAN’S PEACE AND SECURITY

Gone are simply the days when African ‘Huge Men’ propagated themselves in patterns of proceeded with initiative and force. The contemporary African populace is turning out to be all the more politically illuminated and their political direction has moved from the since quite a while ago settled political culture to more develop vote-based advancement. The breezes of progress are seething across the district thus summoned ‘third termers’ are blurring. Today, something like 75% or a greater number of official organizations are intertwined with term limits, as indicated by the 2015 Afro barometer report. While service time restrictions been rejected in something like nine African nations like Niger, Chad, Rwanda, Cameroon, Togo, Uganda, Guinea, Djibouti and Gabon, some defiant political pioneers have endeavoured to clutch power through the instrumentality of protected control or genuine noncompliance to set up service time restraints. Some of these systems have thought that it was not difficult to do as such, by directing sacred control through parliamentarians. When their gathering holds the larger part in parliament, it turns out to be not difficult to accomplish residency lengthening. This political rationale has been seen in a large group of African nations, including Nigeria under President Olusegun Obasanjo looking for his third term after the finish of two terms. The stretching was later barricaded by the upper authoritative chamber – National Assembly.

 

READ MORE HERE

BUILDING PEACE AND SOLIDARITY

Advancing peace and solidarity within a nation or amongst nations is complicated and it can only be achieved with the help of collective action. The primary objective of any nation is to inculcate within its people a sense of unity and trust and to develop it both, nationally and internationally. 

Africa, just like every other continent has been facing numerous challenges as far as establishing peace and development are concerned, even after the launch of a good deal of peace initiatives. A large number of resources have been utilized to carve out peace agreements, which ultimately collapsed due to varied reasons. Peace and solidarity are the key elements of any normal nation.[1] It is the responsibility of both, the states and the people to maintain peace and solidarity amongst one another and any kind of violation of human rights is not appreciated at any level. It is very important to create and maintain balance between the traditional values and progressive values within and amongst the nations.

Mrs. Vidushi Verma

Read More here

[1]https://www.accord.org.za/ajcr-issues/african-approaches-to-building-peace-and-social-solidarity/

Bayaka, Bambuti, Batwa:Endangered people of Africa

We all are renowned with the existence of Pygmy people of Africa from our childhood obsession with the comic of masked hero called The Phantom. These indigenous hunters-gatherer people can be found southwestern skirts of Central African Republic and northern portion of Republic of the Congo, Cameroon, Tanzania, Uganda etc. They’re one of the oldest ethnic group dependent of an ancient stone-age group still adjusting into our modern culture. The average adult height of pygmies are  not more than 155 centimeters( 5 feet 1 inch), which has became they’re catastrophe against modern people. Pygmies neither educated nor have any knowledge regarding their rights, law, or basic sense of human needs. Pygmies also known as forest people’s standard of living is poor because of absence of medical treatment , schools, jobs, land rights etc. We can say they’re trapped behind the tall walls of societal discrimination.

 

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Impact du Changement Climatique sur les Principales Cultures Alimentaires de base et des Agriculteurs, des Stratégies d'Adaptation dans l'Atacora.

Agriculture is the biggest single industry in many developing countries of the world. Benin is a West African country in which agriculture plays an important economic role. The agricultural sector employs about 70% of the population and contributes to 39% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Awoye, 2015) of Benin. It also provides about 88% of the country’s export earnings (Awoye, 2015). The lack of modern farming technologies, poor soil, land degradation, and the rapid population growth constitute the challenges that Benin agriculture is facing. In Benin, the farmers rely highly on the rainfed agriculture for crop productions. The high dependence on rain-fed agriculture combined with low socioeconomic development expose subsistence agriculture farmers to external shocks such as climate variability and climate change impacts. Empirical evidence reveals that the increasing of global temperature is likely to boost agricultural production in the temperate region, and it is expected to reduce yields in the tropical regions of the world (WTO –UNEP, 2009). Studies conducted by Afouda (1990), Houndénou (1999), Ogouwalé (2006)and Boko (1988) cited by Tidjani (2012) , revealed that there is increasing of minimum temperature and agricultural season length is shortening in Benin. Some regional climate models predict a decrease of annual rainfall up to 30% by 2050 in Benin with a significant within- region differences (Paeth et al., 2008). This change will decrease yield production already challenged by limited access to capital, markets, infrastructure and technology. Benin has already experienced food insecurity and climate change will exacerbate it through the increase in frequency of adverse weather events. The Northwest part of Benin (Atacora) is characterized by a unimodal rainfall regime (peak in August). This means the district is more heavily exposed to the impact of climate change. A wellknown study in this respect is the one carried out on farmers’ perception and impact of climate change on production and yam varietal diversity in Northwest of Benin (Loko et al., 2013). Fewresearch works have been conducted in that on the impacts of climate change on the major staple food crops and farmers’ adaptation strategies to this change in the district. This present study examines the impact of climate change on major staple food crops (yam, maize, sorghum, and rice and bean productions) and farmers’ adaptation strategies to this change in Atacora. The section 2 explaines the methodogy used to achieve the goal of this study. The section 3 shows the results of the analysis.

Read the full article here

Rencontre autour de la problématique des déchets plastiques

Selon la présidente du Refede-Mali, Mme Sissoko Goundo Kouyaté citant un Communiqué de presse, il y’ a quelques semaines, IPEN (réseau international d’élimination des polluants) , un réseau mondial qui travaille pour un monde plus sain où les personnes et l’environnement ne sont plus lésés par la production, l’utilisation et l’élimination de produits chimiques toxiques, lance la campagne internationale de plaidoyer pour réduire les pollutions liées aux plastiques et résoudre le problème des produits chimiques contenus dans les jouets pour enfants.

A l’en croire, les efforts politiques et l’attention des médias et des organisations de la société civile sur les plastiques se concentrent aujourd’hui principalement sur le commerce des déchets, les déchets visibles dans les océans et la responsabilité des consommateurs. Cependant aux dires de la présidente, chaque étape du cycle de vie du plastique implique des produits chimiques toxiques, qui menacent la santé humaine, l’environnement, la biodiversité et le climat. À chaque étape du cycle de vie des plastiques, IPEN a une présence de campagne travaillant sur la réduction de la pollution, la substitution et l’élimination des produits chimiques les plus toxiques, la gestion des déchets, l’incinération et la justice environnementale.

Une large gamme de produits chimiques est intentionnellement ajoutée pendant la fabrication et le traitement de la matière plastique et dans le produit final pour conférer certaines propriétés. Ces additifs sont destinés à rester dans le produit final, mais le produit final peut également contenir une gamme de substances inconnues, non intentionnellement ajoutées (NIAS) qui restent du processus de production. Une étude récente a montré que les substances connues et inconnues peuvent constituer un grave danger pour la santé dans certains types de plastiques « Les additifs courants incluent les plastifiants tels que les phtalates qui sont ajoutés pour rendre le plastique plus doux et plus flexible, les extincteurs de flamme tels que les éthers diphényliquespolybromés (PBDE), les pigments tels que les chromates de plomb et bien d’autres. Il n’existe aucun catalogue systématique des produits chimiques utilisés dans la fabrication des plastiques; cependant, le nombre varie dans l’ordre de grandeur de milliers. Beaucoup de ces additifs chimiques sont particulièrement nocifs pour les enfants car ils
Interfèrent avec leur développement » ; estime-elle.

Les additifs selon un document exhibé, ne sont généralement contenus que dans le plastique et sont facilement libérés, générant de nombreuses voies d’exposition différentes. Les produits chimiques contenus dans les plastiques peuvent migrer des produits plastiques vers la poussière domestique ou même vers les aliments et les boissons, ce qui entraîne une exposition par inhalation et ingestion. La mise en bouche de produits en plastique constitue des voies d’exposition directes à travers la salive dans la bouche, et la manipulation des recettes recouvertes de BPA provoque une exposition par absorption par la peau.

Au Mali, il existe des usines qui produisent des produits plastiques (seaux, tasses en plastiques baignoires, chaussures, poubelles, pelles plastiques, savonnières, pots, bacs etc. Ces usines produisent des produits pour enfants comme les kits d’entretien des enfants (baignoire, seau, savonnière, éponge) ballon Cependant, il est important de mentionner qu’il existe des règlementations au Mali: l’article 15 de la constitution du 25 Février 1992 stipule que:«toute personne a droit à un environnement sain.

La loi interdisant la production, l’importation, la commercialisation des sachets plastiques non biodégradable. La Loi n° 01 – 020 / du 30 mai 2001relative aux pollutions et nuisances, dans son article 36 stipule que toute personne intervenant dans l’importation, la production et la distribution des substances chimiques doit se munir d’une autorisation délivrée par les ministres chargés de l’environnement, de la santé, de l’agriculture et des industries.

Tout détenteur de substance chimique doit prouver la qualité de son produit par la présentation d’un certificat d’analyse délivré par un laboratoire agréé.

En cas de doute sur la qualité du produit, l’administration compétente procède à des analyses de contre-expertise. Les frais d’analyse sont à la charge du détenteur. Par conséquent, les produits plastiques étant considérés comme des produits chimiques doivent se plier à cette exigence

Selon elle, le décret N°01 -394/P-RM du 6 septembre 2001 qui fixe la liste des produits dangereux, stipule : en son article 8: Tout producteur et tout distributeur qui commercialise ou utilise dans ses activités professionnelles des matières plastiques ou autres emballages non biodégradables et toute personne responsable de leur première mise sur le marché, au cas où le producteur et le distributeur sont inconnus, est tenu de procéder à la reprise de ses matières plastiques et emballages utilisés en vue de les recycler.

L’article 11, également, que tout producteur de matières plastiques est tenu d’apposer son label sur celles-ci et de communiquer régulièrement les quantités produites et autres caractéristiques physico-chimiques à l’Administration compétente avant leur livraison sur le marché.

Entre autres Mise en œuvre du projet« Au regard de tout ce qui précède, l’ONG AVPIP et son partenaire IPEN se sont donné la main dans le cadre d’une campagne internationale pour réduire les pollutions liées aux plastiques, afin de résoudre le problème des produits chimiques dans les jouets pour enfants », rappelle la présidente et de poursuivre que « le projet s’est concentré sur deux types communs d’additifs plastiques: le bisphénol A, un produit chimique perturbateur endocrinien bien connu; et les métaux lourds tels que le plomb, le chrome, le cadmium et l’antimoine qui sont susceptibles d’être contenus dans les jouets des enfants.

Les activités réalisées selon elle, concernent, l’identification des points de vente des jouets Ciblage des jouets qui correspondent aux termes de référence (couleur, nombre de jouets Achat des jouets, étiquetage, emballage et l’expédition au laboratoire.

Les résultats de laboratoire ont donné les résultats suivants : Méthode: Chaque échantillon a été criblé avec un appareil XRF portable pour les métaux toxiques. Chaque mesure a été répétée deux fois et le niveau moyen calculé. Pour les échantillons de plusieurs couleurs, les pièces de différentes couleurs ont été scannées. Si les niveaux de métaux toxiques dépassaient les limites de sécurité fixées pour les produits de consommation, ces échantillons étaient enregistrés comme un «échec».

Il convient de noter que le dépistage XRF n’est dans ce cas utilisé que comme un indicateur pour les niveaux de métaux toxiques. Cela signifie que les niveaux ne sont que des estimations approximatives et que des analyses de laboratoire supplémentaires seraient nécessaires pour mesurer les niveaux exacts.

Résultats : 6 sur un total de 17 échantillons contenaient des niveaux de métaux toxiques suffisamment élevés pour déclencher un «échec» de la mesure XRF.

Source possible de métaux toxiques détectés: 3 des échantillons contenaient du brome et n’étaient pas des plastiques PVC (comme le montre la faible teneur en chlore).

Cela indique que des plastiques recyclés contenant des ignifuges bromés ont été utilisés dans la fabrication de ces produits

Les niveaux comparativement faibles de plomb et de cadmium dans les 3 échantillons restants indiquent qu’il s’agit d’une contamination. Une possibilité est que ces produits ont été fabriqués avec une certaine quantité de plastique recyclé contenant des niveaux plus élevés de plomb et de cadmium.

Comme notre finale, il est bon que seuls 6 échantillons sur 17 contiennent des indications de niveaux préoccupants de métaux toxiques et que les niveaux de plomb et de cadmium étaient encore suffisamment bas pour indiquer un certain type de contamination plutôt que des additifs intentionnels. Le plastique recyclé contenant des ignifuges bromés ne doit pas être utilisé dans les produits pour enfants.

Selon la présidente de l’ONG AVPIP, dans ses recommandations formulées, le Mali doit: prendre des dispositions urgentes pour l’application de la loi interdisant la production, l’importation, la commercialisation des sachets plastiques non-biodégradable
Légiférer pour interdire le bisphénol et les métaux lourds dans la production des produits plastiques, en mettant l’accent sur les produits des enfants.

Légiférer pour interdire l’importation, commercialisation, le stockage, la distribution des produits plastiques contenant le bisphénol et les métaux lourds en mettant l’accent sur les produits des enfants la prise de mesures règlementaires interdisant les produits chimiques toxiques dans les produits plastiques spécifiquement les produits des enfants à travers des actions de plaidoyer/lobbying. La sensibilisation des populations pour qu’elles prennent conscience des dangers auxquels ils exposent leur vie et celle des enfants.

En conclusion, les résultats des analyses nous montrent que ce sont les plastiques recyclés qui contiennent des produits toxiques, par conséquent ne doivent pas être utilisés pour la fabrication de jouets des enfants ou tous autres objets en plastiques pouvant être en contact avec les enfants.

« Des études plus poussées doivent être réalisées pour démontrer l’impact des produits chimiques contenus dans les jouets des enfants Il nous revient en tant que organisations de la société civile et hommes de presse de continuer cette campagne d’information de sensibilisation et de plaidoyer pour inciter le Gouvernement du Mali à prendre conscience de la situation et prendre des mesures adéquates en conséquence pour protéger la santé des tous petits et leurs mamans comme stipuler dans les recommandations », conclut la président du REFEDE-Mali.

B.D.S

Forêt : Le commerce illicite du bois rouge se porte bien à Kalemie (Tanganyika)

« Nous nous demandons si l’exploitation du bois rouge qui se passe dans la province du Tanganyika à Kalemie est une autorisation ou la complicité de Kinshasa ? », s’interrogent les acteurs de la SOCEARUCO.

A en croire ces acteurs, des cargaisons du bois rouge sont embarquées chaque jour par les transporteurs tanzaniens actuellement présents à Kalemie. Ces transporteurs opèrent librement sous la surveillance de l’homme d’affaires Checheni.

« Les bois rouges entreposés au port de Kalemie sont embarqués vers la Tanzanie avant de prendre la direction de la Chine. Est-ce une complicité des autorités provinciales et nationales sur ce crime environnemental ? Que pense la vice-premier ministre de l’Environnement et développement durable, Eve Bazaiba face à cette pratique qui dénature son image face à la fraude et au trafic illégal des ressources naturelles de la RDC ? », s’indigne notre source.

Depuis son avènement à la tête de la province, l’ancien gouverneur Zoe Kabila avait pris une décision interdisant l’exploitation du bois rouge dans cette partie du territoire national. Aujourd’hui, le marché illicite de ce bois se porte très bien. Il est alimenté par des exploitants chinois et congolais, sous la bénédiction des certaines autorités civiles et militaires.

La SOCEARUCO déplore cependant le silence de l’Interpol et de services de la vice primature de l’Environnement de la République démocratique du Congo, face à ce qu’elle qualifie de crime environnemental.

Alfredo Prince Ntumba

De l'espoir de la démocratie par les urnes à la réalité de la démocratie à travers des Kalachnikovs en Afrique

Introduction

This contribution is based on the previous experiences of a professional life spent in contact with Africa, whether these experiences are operational or result from the author’s last functions as a general officer, turned towards the analysis of crisis situations and strategic intelligence. The positions defended are therefore strictly personal and do not echo those of the Ministry of Defense or the French government.

Where does the importance of military power on the African continent and the role that the armed forces have played or play in the daily functioning of the State come from? The question makes sense when one notes that it has been in the news almost continuously since independence in the early 1960s.

The monopoly of the legitimate use of force is a fundamental regalian prerogative of the armed forces. The temptation is strong to divert the use of force to categorical, partisan, dictatorial or even personal ends, when sometimes even the mixing of genres is not the rule. There is no need for sophisticated arguments to demonstrate this. The facts, including the most recent ones, are still too often taken for granted.

On March 22, 2012, in Bamako, a military coup led by Captain Amadou Sanogo overthrew President Amadou Toumani Touré, who had been democratically elected in 2007 after a consultation held without “exaggerated” fraud. Since then, the replacement of the junta by a civilian transitional government has not, unfortunately, brought the demonstration into question, and the current conflict has some of its roots in this.

The institutional model inherited mainly from a common political system set up at independence by the former colonial power, partly explains the importance of the armed forces. The second reason is a consequence of the previous one. As holders of the legitimate use of force, the “people-at-arms ” take on a variety of functions and claim to be in the exclusive service of the country, in the name of an ethic of which they alone are the guardians. The weight of traditional cultural, ethnic, tribal and family factors in relation to national sentiment is a third reason. Finally, the continent is in the grip of economic difficulties, which the global crisis has only served to underline more strongly, leaving the field open for armed force to bring its powers to bear.

Some avenues for long-term change will serve as an opening for further reflection. However, the problem of transformation involves several antinomic aspects intrinsically linked to the divergent logics of action of the actors involved. One of the keys to success probably lies in a return to the “original” mission of the armed forces: the defense of the land and, from now on, in a much more significant way, also the defense of citizens.

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