Impact of Climate Change on Major Staple Food Crops and Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies in Atacora.

  1. INTRODUCTION

Agriculture is the biggest single industry in many developing countries of the world. Benin is a West African country in which agriculture plays an important economic role. The agricultural sector employs about 70% of the population and contributes to 39% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Awoye, 2015) of Benin. It also provides about 88% of the country’s export earnings (Awoye, 2015). The lack of modern farming technologies, poor soil, land degradation, and the rapid population growth constitute the challenges that Benin agriculture is facing. In Benin, the farmers rely highly on the rain-fed agriculture for crop productions. The high dependence on rain-fed agriculture combined with low socioeconomic development expose subsistence agriculture farmers to external shocks such as climate variability and climate change impacts. Empirical evidence reveals that the increasing of global temperature is likely to boost agricultural production in the temperate region, and it is expected to reduce yields in the tropical regions of the world (WTO –UNEP, 2009). Studies conducted by Afouda (1990), Houndénou (1999), Ogouwalé (2006)and Boko (1988) cited by Tidjani (2012) , revealed that there is increasing of minimum temperature and agricultural season length is shortening in Benin. Some regional climate models predict a decrease of annual rainfall up to 30% by 2050 in Benin with a significant within- region differences (Paeth et al., 2008). This change will decrease yield production already challenged by limited access to capital, markets, infrastructure and technology. Benin has already experienced food insecurity and climate change will exacerbate it through the increase in frequency of adverse weather events. The Northwest part of Benin (Atacora) is characterized by a unimodal rainfall regime (peak in August). This means the district is more heavily exposed to the impact of climate change. A well-known study in this respect is the one carried out on farmers’ perception and impact of climate change on production and yam varietal diversity in Northwest of Benin (Loko et al., 2013). Fewresearch works have been conducted in that on the impacts of climate change on the major staple food crops and farmers’ adaptation strategies to this change in the district. This present study examines the impact of climate change on major staple food crops (yam, maize, sorghum, and rice and bean productions) and farmers’ adaptation strategies to this change in Atacora. The section 2 explaines the methodogy used to achieve the goal of this study. The section 3 shows the results of the analysis.

  1. MATERIALS and METHODS

The study area is the Atacora, located in northwest Benin, it counts nine communes, which are: Natitingou, Kérou, Kouandé, Péhunco, Cobly, Boukoumbé, Matéri, Toucountouna, and Tanguiéta. It shares borders with the Republic of Burkina-Faso in the North, a Donga district in the South, Alibori and Borgou district in the East and Republic of Togo to the West (Figure 1). This district is characterized by a unimodalrainfall distribution (peak in August). The rainfall is unpredictable and irregular with an average between 800 and 950 mm per year (Dansi, Adoukonou-sagbadja, &Vodouhe, 2010). The wet season starts from late mid-June to late October while April-May is the dry season. The landscape in this region is composed of Rocky Mountains, with tropical ferruginous soils and wetland (Dansi et al., 2010). The territory of Atacora consists of 772,262 inhabitants unequally distributed in 384 villages (RGPH-4, 2013). The mean population density is 38 inhabitants/km2 (RGPH-4, 2013). The district is inhabited by seven ethnic groups Bariba, Berba, Ditamari, Lamba, Natimba, Wama and Bialli (Dansi and al., 2010). The main livelihood of the population is farming.

For this study, five communes (Boukoumbe, Cobly, Kérou, Matéri, and Toucontouna) have been selected based on the ethnolinguistic map of Benin and the agricultural potential of each commune. Two villages were chosen per commune. An exploratory survey was conducted to identify the two villages retained for this study. Within each village the interviews were conducted to identify the major staple food crops grown and communities’ adaptive measures developed to cope with the adverse impacts of climate change in the five communes. The temperature (°C), and rainfall (mm) data from 1986 to 2016 was obtained from the National Meteorological Service of Benin while data on major staple food crops for 1986 to 2016 was collected from CARDER (Centre d’Action Régional de Dévelopement Rural) and INSAE (Institut National de Statistique et de l’Analyse Economique). The total annual crop productions of five communes for each major staple food crops grown were obtained by calculating the sum of each crop production of five communes. The rainfall and temperature anomalies were calculated for all the years from the use of the long-term mean, yearly mean and the standard deviation using equation below:

φ = x- x ̅ / σ

Where φrepresents the anomaly value of rainfall and temperature, x is the actual value of each parameter (temperature and rainfall), x ̅ is the long term mean value of each parameter (temperature and rainfall), σ is the standard deviation.

For each major staple food crops the multiple linear regressions model were realized to see their associations with temperature and rainfall. A statistical test was performed using the Software R software. Also, the Excel spreadsheet was used to design the figures.

The model is specified asWhere, Y represents yam, maize, bean, sorghum and rice outputs at time I, x Temperature 1, x Rainfalls 1,μ Stochastic term β β and β = constants

Figure 1. Map of Atacora District

  1. RESULTS

3.1. Climatic condition in Atacora

Observed rainfall and temperature trends

Figure 2.Standardized anomalies of rainfall and temperature in Atacora

The analysis of figure 2 shows the variations trends of temperature and rainfall distribution in Atacora from 1986-2016. Between 1986 to 1997, the temperature trend have been fluctuating and decreasing with values ranging from -1.85 to -0.35°C while a positive trend of temperature was observed from 1998 to 2016. For the precipitation, the positive trend was recorded over the period 1986 to 2004 and the reverse in trend was observed 2004 to 2016.

3.2. Farmers’ strategies for adaptation to climate change in ATACORA

Farmers have adopted different strategies to adapt to climate change and climate variability. Farming is the main occupation for the majority of the sample households. Based on the household survey data collected from 422 households, the farmers reported that they are using different adaptation strategies to reduce the negative impact of climate change. Thirteen (3.08%) farmers use agroforestry (nere’, Shea, tree species), sixty-five farmers shift their cropping calendars (15.4%), fifty-nine farmers (13.98%) exploit the shallows for their crop production, fifty-five farmers use mixed cropping(13.03%), seventy-five farmers apply chemical fertilizers and pesticides (17.78%), hundred-five farmers adopt short season crop with high yield (24.89%), thirty-eight farmers use agricultural expansion (9%), and twelve farmers (2.84%) breed animals to compensate crop failure due to climate variability (Figure 3). The strategy used by each farmers, has a specific purpose, although the ultimate and common goal is adaptation to climate change. Some farmers who practice agro-forestry (integrate trees and crops) had a deep knowledge of the benefits of such practice: preventing soil erosion, reducing losses of water, availability of organic matter and nutrients, reducing the amount of agricultural insect pests and associated diseases etc. The mixed cropping frequently mentioned by farmers was: maize–sorghum, sorghum-millet, maize–groundnut, maize–bean, maize–millet–sorghum, and maize -cassava. It should also be noted that farmers associate these practices with a concern for preserving food and nutritional security of the household. Farmers are seeking to increase the chances of guaranteeing a minimum of products after harvesting. “If one fails, the other can succeed,” said the respondents. Farmers used short season crop with high yield, and shallows as an adaptation strategy to reduce the adverse effect of climate change. They also used chemical fertilizers to increase crop productivity and pesticides to control pests and diseases. In addition, some farmers have adopted small ruminant and poultry farming to diversify their sources of income.

Figure 3.

Farmers’ strategies for adaptation to climate change

3.3. Agricultural productions in Atacora

Yield of major staple food crops in Atacora

Figure 4 shows the evolution of yield of the main agricultural commodities over the thirty years. The figure shows that yam, rice and maize have dominated the increases in production over time. The yield increases for sorghum and the produced beanhas been slow as compared to the yam, rice and maize production. This has happened as a result of the strategy adaptation adopted by the farmers to cope with the negative impacts of climate variation. As strategy, the farmers reducing crop area of long crop seasons (sorghum) and increasing cultivated land of short season crop with high yield (maize and rice). Bean areas have not increased because of theincreasing pests and diseases for this crop. Yam production has increased mostly as a result of area expansion. Despite the fact that there is no introduction of new breeds of yam-seedlings, the cultivated land of this culture is expanded as the main means to maintain the level of yam production because of the important role that this crop plays in cultural practices. This is a reflection of the lack of support for agricultural production of yam, bean and sorghum, the lack of inputs and services to support the intensification of these crops production systems.

Figure 4.Yield of major staple food crops in Atacora over thirty years

  • Relationship between climate variables and crop yields

Several recent studies (Jarvis et al., 2012; Rosenthal & Ort, 2012; and Liu et al., 2008) indicate that climate change in Africa will have variable impacts on crops, with both production losses and gains possible. The multiple regressions were used to see the associations of climatic variables with crop yields in Atacora. The results revealed that the rainfall has significant effect on the output of maize and sorghum at four percent (4%) and for bean at three percent (3%) with a negative coefficient of -0.78, -0.23 and -0.31(Table 1). This result shows that if the rainfall increases by one unit (1), then maize, sorghum and bean outputs will decrease by 0.23, 0.31, and 0.78 kilograms respectively in the long run. Rice and yam outputs show that the temperature has a significant effect on rice and yam with a positive coefficient of 62.2 and 70.5 respectively implying that if temperature increases by one unit rice and yam outputs will increase by 62.2 and 70.5 kilograms respectively (Table 1).

Table 1.Multiple regression results according to climate variables and crop yields

Dependent variables

Independent variables

Coefficient

Std. Error

t value

Pr(>|t|

Rice

Intercept

-144.1

162.25

-3.26

0.002**

Rainfall

-0.45

1.45

-0.31

0.75ns

Temperature

62.25 

17.5  

3.55

0.001**

 

     

Maize

Intercept

2503.67

5199.51

0.48

0.63ns

 

Rainfall

-0.78

0.37

-2.10

0.04 *

 

Temperature

 -2.38

150.77

-0.01

0.98ns

 

     

Sorghum

Intercept

4072.56

1543.91

2.63

0.01 *

Rainfall

-0.23

0.11

-2.09

0.04 *

Temperature

-88.11

44.76 

-1.96

0.05 ns

 

     

Bean

Intercept

-511.03

2026.53

-0.25

0.80ns

Rainfall

-0.31

0.14

-2.17

0.03*

Temperature

53.08

58.76

0.90

0.37ns

 

     

Yam

Intercept

-118.47

79.44

-1.49

0.14

Temperature

70.56 

31.16  

2.26  

0.03 *

Rainfall

1.49

1.05

0.3860.38

0.70

Note: *= Significant at 5%    ns= non-significant

 

CONCLUSION

The study examines the effects on temperature and rainfall variability on yam, maize, bean, sorghum and rice output in Atacora from 1986 to 2016 and farmers’ adaptation strategies to this change. Results from the study revealed that there is an increase in temperature and decreasing rainfall pattern in the study area. Also, this study discovers that temperature significantly affects outputs of yam and rice while rainfall has significant effect on the output of maize, bean, sorghum over the period under study. In response to climate variation, farmers adjust their cropping calendars by shifting either forward or backward the timing of land preparation and seedling, adopt short season crop with high yield, use the shallows for agricultural productions, use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, reducing land of long crop seasons and increasing cultivated land of short duration high yielding crops. The use of chemical fertilizers release the nitrous oxide into the atmosphere which is the most important contribution of GHGs related to agriculture. As the population continues to grow and progress is made in achieving food and nutrition security for the population, chemical fertilizer use will increase for the foreseeable future. This will increase concentrations of nitrous oxide in the atmosphere and will cause a heavy strain on the environment as well as on the quality of the food produced.The problems of climate change are already with us, therefore the private sectors and Beninese government should focus on improved agricultural productivity by developing technology which will not contribute to changes in climate, but increased production through proper funding and implementation. With the decreasing rainfall amount and increasing of temperature, Beninese government should start to invest on irrigation farming in this locality rather than relying more on rain-fed agriculture that is highly unreliable and becoming more unpredictable. In addition, farmers should be sensitized about the negative effects of the long-term application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides on the environment, human health and soil fertility.

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Awoye, O. H. R. (2015). The implication of Future Climate Change on Agricultural production in Tropical West Africa. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), Porto-Novo (Benin), 1-189.I

Ayanlade, A. (2010). Impacts of climate variability on tuber crops in Guinea Savanna part of Nigeria: a GIS approach. Journal of Geography and …, 2(1), 27–35. Retrieved from http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jgg/article/download/7274/5762

Dansi, A., Adoukonou-sagbadja, H., &Vodouhe, R. (2010). Diversity, conservation and related wild species of Fonio millet ( Digitaria spp.) in the northwest of Benin. Genet Resour Crop Evol 57:827–839.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-009-9522-3

Ejikeme, O., &Akpabio, E. M. (2017). The geography of yam cultivation in southern Nigeria: exploring its social meanings and cultural functions. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 4 (1), 28‐35 https:doi.org/10.1016/j.jef.2027.02.004

 

Eregha, P. B., Babatolu, J. S., &Akinnubi, R. T. (2014). Climate change and crop production in Nigeria: An error correction modelling approach. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 4(2), 297–311. Retrieved from http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2s2.084897106987&partnerID=40&md5=333625e2e579aba6c9ef15ea1790a8f3

 

Jarvis, A., Ramirez-Villegas, J.,  Campo, B.V.H., & Navarro-Racines, C. (2012). Is cassava the answer to African

climate change adaptation? Tropical Plant Biology, 5(1), pp.9-29.

 

Liu, J. , Fritz, S. ,. vanWesenbeeck, C.F.A, Fuchs, M. , You, L., Obersteiner, M. , & Yang, H. (2008). A spatially explicit assessment of current and future hotspots of hunger in sub-Saharan Africa in the context of global change. Global and Planetary Change, 64(3-4), pp. 222-235.

 

Loko, Y. L., Dansi, A., Agre, A. P., Akpa, N., Assogba, P., Dansi, M., &Sanni, K. A. A. (2013).Perceptions paysannes et impacts des changements climatiques sur la production et la diversité variétale de l ’ igname dans la zone aride du nord-ouest du Bénin, 7(April), 672–695.

 

Mikova, K. (2015). Effect of Climate Change on Crop Production in Rwanda. Earth Sciences, 4(3), 120. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.earth.20150403.15

Paeth, H., Hall, N.M.J., Gaertner, M.A., Dominguez Alonso, M., Moumouni, S., Polcher, J., Ruti, P.M., Fink, A.H., Gosset, M., Lebel, T., Gaye, A.T., Rowell, D.P., Moufouma-Okia, W., Jacob, D., Rockel, B., Giorgi, F., regional downscaling of West African precipitation. Atmospheric Science Letters 12, 75–82.

Pi, A., Bc, A., &Bogbenda, A. (2017). Simulating the effect of climate change on the output of major crops in Benue State Nigeria, 5(4), 594–602.

Regh, T., Bossa, A. Y., &Diekkrüger, B. (2014). Scenario-based simulations of the impacts of rainfall variability and management options on maize production in Benin, 9(46), 3393–3410. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2014.8757

 

Recensement Général de la Population et de L’Habitation (RGPH4). (2013). Effectifs de la Population des Villages et Quartiers de ville du Benin. Republique du Benin, Mai, 2-83.

Rosenthal, D. M., &Ort, D. R. (2012).Examining cassava’s potential to enhance food security under climate change.

Tropical Plant Biology, 5(1), pp. 30-38.

Tidjani, M.A., &Akponikpe,P.B.I. (2012).Evaluation des stratégies paysannes d’adaptation aux changements climatiques : cas de la production du maïs au nord-bénin. African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 20, 425–441.

 

World Trade Organization & the United Nations Environmental (WTO-UNEP) Report (2009), On Trade and Climate Change. Switzerland. World Trade Organization. www.wto.org/english/res_e/booksp_e/trade_climate_change_e.pdf

 

Uger, F. I. (2017). Impact of Climate Variability on Yam Production in Benue State: an Empirical Analysis, 4(2), 14–23.

Conservation : En RDC, bientôt l’on peut payer près de 3000 $ et tuer légalement un éléphant

En République démocratique du Congo, la conservation risque de perdre son sens dans la mesure où un décret en gestation pourrait permettre au chasseur de se taper un éléphant entier en payant sa taxe de 2 885 dollars américains. De même, il peut consommer la viande d’un gorille entier en s’acquittant légalement de sa taxe de 1 925 dollars américains. Cette mesure du gouvernement a été dénoncée lors d’une communication du directeur général de l’ICCN, Cosma

« Avec cette mesure visant à maximiser les revenus, l’Institut congolais pour la conservation de la nature (ICCN) ne pourra pas faire son travail de préservation des espèces en danger de disparition », a déclaré Cosma Wilungula.

Dans une décision conjointe ce mois-ci, les ministères de l’Environnement et des Finances de la RDC ont déclaré que tuer, posséder ou vendre des espèces protégées serait autorisé moyennant le paiement d’une taxe.

« Il en coûte maintenant 2 885 $ pour tuer un éléphant de forêt, tandis que le montant pour tuer, manger ou vendre un gorille de montagne est de 1 925 $. Ce décret supprime (le crime) le trafic illégal d’espèces protégées », a déploré Monsieur Wilungula, avertissant que les bailleurs de fonds ne paieraient pas environ 32 millions de dollars utilisés pour la conservation chaque année si la règle était maintenue.

Dans cette logique, l’Union européenne qui met des paquets dans la conservation dans les cinq aires protégées de la RDC continuerait-elle à s’y investir ? Rien n’est moins rassurant si la RDC maintient sa décision de légaliser le braconnage dans ses aires protégées., pour renflouer les caisses de l’Etat.

« Les paiements d’impôts relativement bas créeraient une incitation au profit pour le braconnage, l’ivoire d’éléphant coûtant jusqu’à 600 dollars par kilogramme (2,2 livres) sur le marché local et un bébé gorille d’une valeur de 100 000 dollars », a informé le directeur général de l’ICCN.

Notons par ailleurs que le Comité du patrimoine mondial de l’UNESCO a retiré le vaste parc national de la Salonga en RDC d’une liste de sites menacés, louant les efforts de conservation, notamment pour les éléphants de forêt et les bonobos.

Alfredo Prince NTUMBA, avec AFP

 

Wilungula, ce jeudi 22 juillet, à Kinshasa

WORLDWIDE CALL FOR APPLICATIONS, 2021 New Deal for Nature and People Research Group Submission

Global trade and economic growth over the last half century have driven huge improvements in health and living standards but also undermined the stability of the Earth’s natural systems and exacerbated global inequality. The 2020 Living Planet Index shows that global populations of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and fish have suffered an average 68% decline in less than half a century (from 1970 to 2016).  According to the World Economic Forum Global Risks Report 2020, the top five most pressing challenges facing Africa and the world over the next decade are, for the first time, all related to the environment, and include biodiversity loss and climate change. Thus, the main cause of this dramatic decline is habitat loss and degradation, including deforestation, driven by how we as humanity produce food.

Our economies are embedded within nature but economics do not recognize that human health, wealth and security depend on safeguarding environmental health. Nature powers industry and enterprise but we are using up ‘natural capital’ and degrading natural systems faster than nature can replenish and restore them, exceeding Earth’s overall bio capacity by 58% according to Ecological Foot printing.

Failure to tackle nature’s decline will increase nature-related risk (desertification, pollution, erosion, overexploitation of natural resources such as forest and water), hamper prosperity and economic development, further disrupt supply chains, threaten global food security, and cost the global economy at least $479 billion a year – amounting to $10 trillion by 2050.  

Addressing the aforementioned challenges requires the involvement of youths and civil society. Thus, as part of its engagement for ecosystems restoration African network of Young Leaders for Peace and Sustainable Development has set the New Deal for Nature and People Coalition made up of over 500 civil society organizations committed towards the nature and human positive Vision: to stop and reverse the catastrophic loss of biodiversity, ensure good governance, human rights, peacebuilding and put nature on the path recovery for present and future generations. In 2020, African youths and civil society organizations members of the coalition drafted two regional position papers on COVID19 and pandemics and towards a strong post 2020 Global Biodiversity Framework for a green growth resumption in Africa and in the world.

Youth and Civil Society have a role to lead the continent and the world to transiting to custodians of natural capital, human rights, peace and development. Among various approaches used thereto, African Network of Young Leaders for Peace and Sustainable Development emphasizes in the production of articles as tools of teaching, learning, experience sharing and advocacy. A Research group of worldwide writers called the New Deal for Nature and People Research Group has been set.

Objectives

The present call aims at recruiting new members of the New Deal for Nature and People Research and Actions Group.  Under the coordination of African Network of Young Leaders for Peace and Sustainable Development, the group seek on one hand, to strengthen the scientific production of civil society actors on issues relating to sustainable development goals at local, national and regional level, and on another hand, to reinforce their visibility through the release of their works on several regional and international platforms and channels. Several collaborative initiatives and work will be implemented with selected members who will be given membership certificate and further details after selection.

Criteria of application

  • Be an individual or a representative of an organization
  • Be a citizen of any country member of the United Nations
  • Show a proof of at least one article or scientific work written in any area related to conservation and restoration of ecosystems, climate change, peacebuilding and sustainable development
  • Propose 2 themes you wish to develop within the New Deal for Nature and People Research Group
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WORLDWIDE CALL FOR APPLICATIONS, 2021 New Deal for Nature and People AMBASSADORS

Global trade and economic growth over the last half century have driven huge improvements in health and living standards but also undermined the stability of the Earth’s natural systems and exacerbated global inequality. The 2020 Living Planet Index shows that global populations of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and fish have suffered an average 68% decline in less than half a century (from 1970 to 2016).  According to the World Economic Forum Global Risks Report 2020, the top five most pressing challenges facing Africa and the world over the next decade are, for the first time, all related to the environment, and include biodiversity loss and climate change. Thus, the main cause of this dramatic decline is habitat loss and degradation, including deforestation, driven by how we as humanity produce food.

Our economies are embedded within nature but economics do not recognize that human health, wealth and security depend on safeguarding environmental health. Nature powers industry and enterprise but we are using up ‘natural capital’ and degrading natural systems faster than nature can replenish and restore them, exceeding Earth’s overall bio capacity by 58% according to Ecological Foot printing.

Failure to tackle nature’s decline will increase nature-related risk (desertification, pollution, erosion, overexploitation of natural resources such as forest and water), hamper prosperity and economic development, further disrupt supply chains, threaten global food security, and cost the global economy at least $479 billion a year – amounting to $10 trillion by 2050.  

Addressing the aforementioned challenges requires the involvement of youths and civil society. Thus, as part of its engagement for ecosystems restoration African network of Young Leaders for Peace and Sustainable Development has set the New Deal for Nature and People Coalition made up of over 500 civil society organizations committed towards the nature and human positive Vision: to stop and reverse the catastrophic loss of biodiversity, ensure good governance, human rights, peacebuilding and put nature on the path recovery for present and future generations. In 2020, African youths and civil society organizations members of the coalition drafted two regional position papers on COVID19 and pandemics and towards a strong post 2020 Global Biodiversity Framework for a green growth resumption in Africa and in the world.

Youth and Civil Society have a role to lead the continent and the world to transiting to custodians of natural capital, human rights, peace and development. African Network of Young Leaders for Peace and sustainable Development champions the New Deal for Nature and People and believes that there is a need of ambassadors. The present call aims at recruiting the 2021 Cohort of the New Deal for Nature and People Ambassadors. 

Overview on the New Deal for Nature and People Ambassador

Can become New Deal for Nature and People (ND4NP) Ambassadors, citizens of all countries, engaged to stop and reverse the catastrophic loss of biodiversity, ensure good governance, human rights, peacebuilding and put nature on the path recovery for present and future generations. Ambassador share their experiences, help document community stories, priorities, ideas, worries, needs, and opinions related to climate change and biodiversity.

With the help of Ambassadors, those that are underrepresented, underserved, or made vulnerable, and expected to experience the first and worst consequences of climate change, see their voice heard and are involved in decision making processes concerning their life and future. We understand and value that people know best how to engage with their own communities, and we encourage Ambassadors to engage with their communities in their own way.

We’re not looking for the strongest activists. What we are looking for people who love the humanity and planet and are voluntarily dedicated, even with small actions, to safeguard our planet and champion human rights.

Objective and Approach

The objective of the New Deal for Nature and People Ambassadors is to mentor youth in becoming more active by:

  • Providing information on relevant ecosystems, climate and sustainable development related issues at local, regional and international level;
  • Raising awareness about how ecosystem and climate issues affect human rights, peacebuilding, migration, and others sustainable development goals, how decisions are made and how youth can affect those decisions
  • Providing opportunities for youth to participate in meaningful discussions about the urban environment (through events, online, etc.)
  • Making the New Deal for Nature and People fresh, fun and tailored to youths

Key components of the program include:

  • An online portal for information on ecosystem, climate, and human rights related issues
  • Events that bring together young people (e.g., high school/university/college students, young professionals, etc.) and leaders to discuss ecosystem and human rights related issues
  • A network of youth and youth organizations with similar objectives

What is ND4NP Ambassadors?

  • A New Deal for Nature and People (ND4NP) Ambassador is a young person who has volunteered to act as a representative, contributor and/or and promoter of the New Deal for Nature and People and is committed to helping stop and reverse the catastrophic loss of biodiversity, ensure good governance, human rights, peacebuilding and put nature on the path recovery for present and future generations.
  • New Deal for Nature and People (ND4NP) Ambassadors do not absolutely need any formal training or education in ecosystem, climate and human rights related issues. They can be high school students, college/university students, young professionals, civil society activists, or somewhere in between.

Roles and Responsibilities of ND4NP Ambassadors

There are four possible ND4NP Ambassador roles:

  • Content Makers – Developing blog posts, articles and other research tasks.
  • Experience Makers– Working with African Network of Young Leaders for Peace and Sustainable Development towards the Post 2020 biodiversity framework for ecosystems restoration.
  • Social Makers – Engaging other youth by sharing, posting, tweeting and discussing on thematic related to the New Deal for Nature and People.
  • Media Makers – Making videos, infographics or taking pictures to support New Deal for Nature and People

The ND4NP Ambassadors also have a responsibility to represent the ND4NP brand in their country and be an advocate for the initiative.

Roles and Responsibilities of African Network of Young Leaders for Peace and Sustainable Development (ANYL4PSD)

ANYL4PSD is responsible for overall management and delivery of the New Deal for Nature and People Coalition. Key roles for ANYL4PSD include:

  • Recruit and manage the ND4NP Ambassadors
  • Provide the tools and guidance needed to help Ambassadors complete their assigned tasks.
  • Communicate with ND4NP Ambassadors on a regular basis.
  • Create and manage the website and blog.
  • Develop templates and instructions for creating blog posts and factsheets.
  • Grow/facilitate the ND4NP Ambassadors network through social media and marketing.

What’s in it for you?

  • Each of Ambassador roles provides an opportunity for you to contribute to a meaningful and important youth initiative.
  • A one-year renewable certificate will be delivered to you.
  • Becoming a ND4NP Ambassadors will give you an opportunity to improve and develop new skills in research, writing, event coordination, media creation, etc.
  • ANYL4PSD will be happy to provide a reference or vouch for your contributions. You will also have the opportunity to interact with professionals, other organizations, speakers, etc. along the way.
  • Your actions for Nature and climate, human rights and Peace will be showcased and disseminated in several platforms and Magazine.
  • You’ll get to connect with other youth with similar interests (who may end up being your colleagues one day!). Plus, it’s going to be a lot of fun!

The deadline for submitting applications is August 18, 2021, then we will assess all applicants and announce the names of the new ND4NP ambassadors.

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NEW DEAL FOR NATURE AND PEOPLE: BOOKLET OF BEST PRACTICES

The 2020 Living Planet Index shows that global populations of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and fish have suffered an average 68% decline in less than half a century (from 1970 to 2016). The main cause of this dramatic decline is habitat loss and degradation, including deforestation, driven by how we as humanity produce food. Nature powers industry and enterprise but we are using up ‘natural capital’ and degrading natural systems faster than nature can replenish and restore them, exceeding Earth’s overall bio capacity by 58% according to Ecological Foot printing. Over this decade, we have an incredible opportunity to make an ambitious global commitment to restore nature through the New Deal for Nature and People. We believe that people and nature can thrive together – we all have a part to play. Only a global coalition of the willing can make all this happen. In order to address those challenges, African Network of Young Leaders for Peace and Sustainable Development set in 2020 the New deal for Nature and people Coalition of civil society organizations. Under the leadership of African network of Young Leaders for Peace and Sustainable Development, African youths and civil society organizations have drafted and started the implementation of two regional position papers on COVID19 and pandemics and towards a strong post 2020 Global Biodiversity Framework for a green growth resumption in Africa and in the world. The ND4NPC Best practices booklet aims to valorise best practices of civil society organisations in this frame. The ND4NPC booklet will be issued every trimester of the year.

 

READ THE FULL BOOKLET HERE

AFRICAN’S PEACE AND SECURITY

Gone are simply the days when African ‘Huge Men’ propagated themselves in patterns of proceeded with initiative and force. The contemporary African populace is turning out to be all the more politically illuminated and their political direction has moved from the since quite a while ago settled political culture to more develop vote-based advancement. The breezes of progress are seething across the district thus summoned ‘third termers’ are blurring. Today, something like 75% or a greater number of official organizations are intertwined with term limits, as indicated by the 2015 Afro barometer report. While service time restrictions been rejected in something like nine African nations like Niger, Chad, Rwanda, Cameroon, Togo, Uganda, Guinea, Djibouti and Gabon, some defiant political pioneers have endeavoured to clutch power through the instrumentality of protected control or genuine noncompliance to set up service time restraints. Some of these systems have thought that it was not difficult to do as such, by directing sacred control through parliamentarians. When their gathering holds the larger part in parliament, it turns out to be not difficult to accomplish residency lengthening. This political rationale has been seen in a large group of African nations, including Nigeria under President Olusegun Obasanjo looking for his third term after the finish of two terms. The stretching was later barricaded by the upper authoritative chamber – National Assembly.

 

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BUILDING PEACE AND SOLIDARITY

Advancing peace and solidarity within a nation or amongst nations is complicated and it can only be achieved with the help of collective action. The primary objective of any nation is to inculcate within its people a sense of unity and trust and to develop it both, nationally and internationally. 

Africa, just like every other continent has been facing numerous challenges as far as establishing peace and development are concerned, even after the launch of a good deal of peace initiatives. A large number of resources have been utilized to carve out peace agreements, which ultimately collapsed due to varied reasons. Peace and solidarity are the key elements of any normal nation.[1] It is the responsibility of both, the states and the people to maintain peace and solidarity amongst one another and any kind of violation of human rights is not appreciated at any level. It is very important to create and maintain balance between the traditional values and progressive values within and amongst the nations.

Mrs. Vidushi Verma

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[1]https://www.accord.org.za/ajcr-issues/african-approaches-to-building-peace-and-social-solidarity/

Bayaka, Bambuti, Batwa:Endangered people of Africa

We all are renowned with the existence of Pygmy people of Africa from our childhood obsession with the comic of masked hero called The Phantom. These indigenous hunters-gatherer people can be found southwestern skirts of Central African Republic and northern portion of Republic of the Congo, Cameroon, Tanzania, Uganda etc. They’re one of the oldest ethnic group dependent of an ancient stone-age group still adjusting into our modern culture. The average adult height of pygmies are  not more than 155 centimeters( 5 feet 1 inch), which has became they’re catastrophe against modern people. Pygmies neither educated nor have any knowledge regarding their rights, law, or basic sense of human needs. Pygmies also known as forest people’s standard of living is poor because of absence of medical treatment , schools, jobs, land rights etc. We can say they’re trapped behind the tall walls of societal discrimination.

 

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Impact of Climate Change on Major Staple Food Crops and Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies in Atacora.

Agriculture is the biggest single industry in many developing countries of the world. Benin is a West African country in which agriculture plays an important economic role. The agricultural sector employs about 70% of the population and contributes to 39% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Awoye, 2015) of Benin. It also provides about 88% of the country’s export earnings (Awoye, 2015). The lack of modern farming technologies, poor soil, land degradation, and the rapid population growth constitute the challenges that Benin agriculture is facing. In Benin, the farmers rely highly on the rainfed agriculture for crop productions. The high dependence on rain-fed agriculture combined with low socioeconomic development expose subsistence agriculture farmers to external shocks such as climate variability and climate change impacts. Empirical evidence reveals that the increasing of global temperature is likely to boost agricultural production in the temperate region, and it is expected to reduce yields in the tropical regions of the world (WTO –UNEP, 2009). Studies conducted by Afouda (1990), Houndénou (1999), Ogouwalé (2006)and Boko (1988) cited by Tidjani (2012) , revealed that there is increasing of minimum temperature and agricultural season length is shortening in Benin. Some regional climate models predict a decrease of annual rainfall up to 30% by 2050 in Benin with a significant within- region differences (Paeth et al., 2008). This change will decrease yield production already challenged by limited access to capital, markets, infrastructure and technology. Benin has already experienced food insecurity and climate change will exacerbate it through the increase in frequency of adverse weather events. The Northwest part of Benin (Atacora) is characterized by a unimodal rainfall regime (peak in August). This means the district is more heavily exposed to the impact of climate change. A wellknown study in this respect is the one carried out on farmers’ perception and impact of climate change on production and yam varietal diversity in Northwest of Benin (Loko et al., 2013). Fewresearch works have been conducted in that on the impacts of climate change on the major staple food crops and farmers’ adaptation strategies to this change in the district. This present study examines the impact of climate change on major staple food crops (yam, maize, sorghum, and rice and bean productions) and farmers’ adaptation strategies to this change in Atacora. The section 2 explaines the methodogy used to achieve the goal of this study. The section 3 shows the results of the analysis.

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Women Grants to End Violence Against Women and Children

Women Grants to End Violence Against Women and Children

In order to End Violence Against Women and Violence Against Children, a research grant is available to support research to improve prevention and response to VAW, VAC, and other forms of violence driven by gender inequality in low and middle-income countries – a major public health concern and human rights violation.

Project supported by the research Grant should:

  • Apply feminist and women-centred research and partnerships.
  • Be conceptualised within a human rights framework.
  • Adhere to international safety and ethical guidelines.
  • Strive for innovation in ideas, new methodologies and partnerships, while building on evidence.
  • Strive to be collaborative, cross sectoral and multidisciplinary.
  • Promote equitable participation and bring to the field diverse voices from low- and middle-income countries (researchers, survivors, marginalised groups).
  • Where relevant and appropriate, endeavor to engage the community where the research will take place.
  • Challenge the gender hierarchy that contributes to VAW and VAC in order to promote gender equality.
  • Inform policy, programmes and services and strengthen access to comprehensive care and support for survivors.

Women Grants to End Violence Against Women and Children – Funding Information

  • Applicants can apply for grants between $40,000 to $200,000 no longer than 24 months in length.

Women Grants to End Violence Against Women and Children – Types of Eligible Projects

The types of projects that may be supported under this grant include:

  • Research projects that are either standalone projects or a component of a larger project that will guide efforts to effectively address or prevent VAW and VAC.
  • Qualitative studies that explore the effectiveness and process of creating change with innovative VAW and VAC prevention interventions or the acceptability, impact, and process of change created by interventions that support and assist survivors of VAW and VAC.
  • Projects that seek to address VAW and VAC prevention and response together or simultaneously or in one intervention with distinct elements.
  • Projects that work to understand how to integrate VAW and/or or VAC programming into other sectoral work, for instance, large infrastructure development programmes.
  • Those that develop innovative methods and tools for VAW and/or VAC research.
  • Those that evaluate how to effectively expand tested VAW and VAC prevention and response interventions.
  • Secondary analysis of existing data that will provide insights into addressing VAW and VAC more effectively and sustainably.
  • Research on violence across diverse populations in situations of vulnerability, including persons with disabilities, people living with HIV, older persons, indigenous peoples, LGBTQI, refugees, internally displaced persons and migrants. >
  • Research on the impact of Covid–19 on VAW and the VAW / VAC intersections, including: conducting research and programming during times of widespread instability and anxiety; ethical and safe use of remote data collection; support services for survivors under restrictive regulatory environments.

Women Grants to End Violence Against Women and Children – Eligibility Criteria

Applications for support under this award should:

  • Be affiliated with a recognised, legally constituted research institution or organisation with existing research or programming capacity on VAW and VAC. Grants will only be made to institutions and not to individuals.
  • Where appropriate, involve partnerships between multiple organisations, for example, a local NGO, practice-based agency and an academic institution, or local government and an NGO or an academic institution. Preference will be given to academic/researcher – practitioner partnerships. The partnership arrangement must be clearly outlined and reflected in the proposal and budget allocation.
  • Preference will be given to proposals submitted and led by organisations based in LMICs. Where appropriate, have as an objective strengthening the research capacity of the implementing agency.

Other eligibility considerations to note:

  • Organisations or consortiums can submit up to two proposals, but only one proposal will be funded.
  • Previous grantees will not be considered as principal applicants.
  • Grant applications that are proposing work on behalf of UN Agencies, the World Bank
  • Group or other multilateral agencies will not be considered.
  • All projects under this call should focus on VAW and VAC prevention and/or response in LMICs.
  • If the funds are sought for scale up or dissemination activities, the application must provide sufficient information to enable the scientific quality of the original study to be assessed, as well as a description of the activities for which funds are requested.

Applications must be submitted to the e-mail:  opportunities@anyl4psd.org or  anyl4psd.opportunities@gmail.com

Apply by 25 July 2021

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