Project on participatory reforestation and education to environment in Cameroon East region

Context

Since the 80s, deforestation and land degradation reign in the east region of Cameroon where Baka’s (indigenous people) lives. The region houses the reserve of Dja which is the best protected humid forest (526 000 ha) situated in Congo Bassin and the largest reservoir of biological diversity of the world.  The relief in many localities as the locality of Somalomo is very little accident. It is characterized by low hills, draining huge amounts of runoff in the rainy season, resulting in the formation of streams in the valleys.

The degradation of the environment is much accentuated. In some localities, the extensive degradation is manifested by erosion in the form of "lavaka", which has negative impacts on lands cultivation by annual silting. These major erosions have a negative impact on agricultural production, while deforestation is leading to an increasingly pronounced rainfall delay each year.

The exploitation of natural resources in the Dja Faunal Reserve is carried out by the local populations, who mainly harvest non-timber forest products and fish along the rivers both inside and on the periphery of the Reserve. The Dja is at the center of several major projects including the construction of a hydro-electric dam in the south-western periphery in Mekin, an agro-industrial plantation and the Géovic mining project in the northern periphery.

There is a mismanagement of natural resource that has been one of the major causes of the severe land degradation, namely the influence of the various activities (deforestation and poaching) of indigenous people impacting the Dja reserve soil and biosphere. To satisfy their needs in energy (charcoal), in building materials and to extend the surfaces cultivated vis-a-vis the low yield of the grounds

Objectives

To Contribute to the protection of the environment through the environmental education of indigenous people and participatory reforestation in the municipality of Somalomo situated in the division of Haut Nyong in East region.

Targets:

  • Pygmies and vulnerable rural populations
  • Farmers
  • Rural development NGOs
  • Artisanal Transformers,
  • Rural micro entrepreneurs
  • Cooperatives
  • Local authorities and communities

Results:

  • About 2,000 people sensitized in markets, schools on the challenges of land and forest degradation;
  • 5,000 trees planted during 12 months (one family one tree);
  • Coal cutters and farmers sensitized against illicit destruction of trees for charcoal production Appeal for behavior change to landowners in rational land management;
  • 50 endogenous persons (including women, young people and men) trained on technics and methods of reforestation, have trained 200 persons on the development of products from afforestation in (42) villages.
  • Construction of a nursery center, able to respond to the needs of the Somalomo municipality in reforestation.
  • Establish two "groups of endogenous farmers Badwe'e women, youth and men to run the nurseries".
  • The organizational and technical capacities of 25 CSOs strengthen in the fabrication of improved stoves.
Capacity Building and advocacy for Sustainable Financing Mechanisms/Sustainable Land Management in Adamaoua, and North regions in Cameroon

Context

The main causes of Land Degradation in Adamaoua and North regions in Cameroon include 1) shifting agriculture on steep slopes with poor soil and vegetation management, leading to sheet and gully erosion, deforestation and landslides; 2) Use of fire for land clearance and pest control in pastures, resulting in removal of the vegetative protection of the soil against raindrop impact and cross-surface flow, and loss of soil carbon and nitrogen; 3) Inappropriate use of irrigation, including the use of practices with low water efficiency and high drop impact (such as aspersion, instead of drip irrigation and conservation of natural soil water through mulching), poor design of irrigation systems and drainage in relation to natural topography, the location of irrigated agriculture in zones with limited aquifer resources, and the use of poor quality (saline) water, resulting in salinization and erosion of soils, and the depletion of scarce aquifer resources; 4) Inappropriate crop selection, related to soil productive potential, relief, water and nutrient availability and climatic patterns, resulting in degradation of soil nutrient status, increased pressure on scarce water resources and increased soil erosion on steep slopes due to the inadequacy of soil cover; 5) Poor livestock management, including the free range grazing of animals and the use of excessive stocking levels, resulting in degradation of vegetation resources and the compaction of soils, reducing rates of aquifer recharge through infiltration and increasing cross-surface runoff which causes erosion.

After having interviewed communities and agricultural stakeholders, it appeared that there is an inadequate awareness among producers of implications of effects of agriculture on steep slopes and on possible alternatives. Producers are limited aware of i) technical aspects of alternative irrigation and water management methods of crop alternatives in relation to site characteristics, and ii) implications of poor crop selection, iii) alternatives to extensive ranching (such as pasture improvement, stabling, cut-and-carry and fodder banks). 

Actions of producers are not adequately controlled or directed. There is limited access to human, physical and financial resources needed for land preparation through alternative means.  There is not an effective regulation of i) burning and ii) livestock raising practices

These threats that are of particular significance include pressures affecting forest and bush through conversion to pasture, followed by subsequent degradation by soil erosion, particularly on slopes, poor pasture management and fire. Water management issues are of particular concern; other factors to be address include the excessive use of monocultures and the use of crops and livestock which are inappropriate for local conditions (include slopes of more than 15%, not recommended for livestock), high levels for salinity, and poor water quality, which is not suitable for irrigation.

Project objective

 

The project objective was to reduce land degradation and enable producers to have access and making use of financial mechanisms in support of sustainable land management SLM in a sustainable manner that contributes to maintaining ecosystem productivity and functions.

Target areas

 The project was implemented in three subdivisions:

Regions

Divisions

Subdivisions

Far North

-        

-        

North

-       Bénoué

-       Faro

-       Mayo Rey

-       Pitoa

-       Poli

-       Touboro

Adamaoua

-       Mvina

-       Mayo Mbanyo

-       Djerem

-       Mbé

-       Banyo

-       Tibati

 Project Results

1-  Advocacy operationalized for the consolidation of mechanisms and capacities for sustainable financing at national level with the aim to Increase budget allocated nationwide to Sustainable Land Management activities, increase funding from existing financing mechanisms to Sustainable Land Management nationwide; iii) Increase funding from new financing mechanisms to SLM nationwide.

2-Advocacy operationalized for the validation of sustainable funding mechanisms local level. This advocacy aimed at increasing i) the numbers of producers that receive direct benefits from at least one financing mechanism ii) budget assignation by local production entities in to activities in support of SLM and increasing programs for developing capacities and awareness among producers in target areas for obtaining and applying SLM incentives.

 3-   20 cooperatives of producers received technical assistance on Sustainable Land Management practices through Capacity Building for Information. Coordination and Monitoring Systems/SLM in Areas with Water Resource Management Problems focusing on sustainable use of ground water on strengthening resistance to drought and other extreme climatic events in agricultural lands, on replicating demonstration activities, conserving rainwater and testing high efficient irrigation systems, on Sustainable management of water resources, drought prevention and management of water reserves for SLM

4-05 farmers, livestock herders and forest resource users adopted practices to counter land degradation resulting to the restoration of ecosystems (with diverse structure) 

Capacity Building and advocacy for Sustainable Financing Mechanisms/Sustainable Land Management in center and east regions of Cameroon

The main causes of Land Degradation in the center and east regions of Cameroon include 1) shifting agriculture on steep slopes with poor soil and vegetation management, leading to sheet and gully erosion, deforestation and landslides; 2) Use of fire for land clearance and pest control in pastures, resulting in removal of the vegetative protection of the soil against raindrop impact and cross-surface flow, and loss of soil carbon and nitrogen; 3) Inappropriate use of irrigation, including the use of practices with low water efficiency and high drop impact (such as aspersion, instead of drip irrigation and conservation of natural soil water through mulching), poor design of irrigation systems and drainage in relation to natural topography, the location of irrigated agriculture in zones with limited aquifer resources, and the use of poor quality (saline) water, resulting in salinization and erosion of soils, and the depletion of scarce aquifer resources; 4) Inappropriate crop selection, related to soil productive potential, relief, water and nutrient availability and climatic patterns, resulting in degradation of soil nutrient status, increased pressure on scarce water resources and increased soil erosion on steep slopes due to the inadequacy of soil cover; 5) Inadequate and inappropriate nutrient management related to crop needs and soil characteristics, resulting in acidification of soils by fertilizer inputs, and crop failure when fertilizers are inadequate or inappropriate (leading to increased pressure on alternative areas);  6) Excessive use of monocultures, such as sugar cane and single-species timber plantations, resulting in Excessive demands on available soil nutrient and water reserves, and increase of erosive processes due to crop structure; 7) Poor livestock management, including the free range grazing of animals and the use of excessive stocking levels, resulting in degradation of vegetation resources and the compaction of soils, reducing rates of aquifer recharge through infiltration and increasing cross-surface runoff which causes erosion. 8) Timber extraction, including the inadequate construction and maintenance of extraction routes, resulting in degradation of vegetation cover and the compaction and erosion of soils through the use of heavy machinery and the disruption of drainage patterns

After having interviewed communities and agricultural stakeholders, it appeared that there is an inadequate awareness among producers of implications of effects of agriculture on steep slopes and on possible alternatives. Producers are limited aware of i) the process of land degradation that are taking place as a consequence of timber extraction ii) technical aspects of alternative irrigation and water management methods of crop alternatives in relation to site characteristics, iii) of alternatives to monocultures such as agro forestry, intercropping and successional agriculture iv) implications of poor crop selection, v) alternatives such as rotation, green manure and compos vi) alternatives to extensive ranching (such as pasture improvement, stabling, cut-and-carry and fodder banks). 

Actions of producers are not adequately controlled or directed. There is limited i) availability of organic fertilizer ii) access to human, physical and financial resources needed for land preparation through alternative means.  There is not an effective regulation of i) timber extraction, ii) burning and iii) livestock raising practices

These threats that are of particular significance include pressures affecting forest and bush through conversion to pasture, followed by subsequent degradation by soil erosion, particularly on slopes, poor pasture management and fire. Water management issues are of particular concern; other factors to be address include the excessive use of monocultures and the use of crops and livestock which are inappropriate for local conditions (include slopes of more than 15%, not recommended for livestock), high levels for salinity, and poor water quality, which is not suitable for irrigation.

 

Project objective:

The project objective is to reduce land degradation and enable producers to have access and making use of financial mechanisms in support of sustainable land management SLM in a sustainable manner that contributes to maintaining ecosystem productivity and functions.

Targeted areas

 

Regions

Divisions

Subdivisions

Centre

-       Haute Sanaga

-       Mbam et Inoubou

-       Mefou et Akono

-       Mbam et Kim

-       Mbandjock

-       Bafia

-       Bankomo

-       Ntui

East

-       Haut Nyong

-       Kadey

-       Lom et Djérem

-       Abong Mbang

-       Délélé

-       Diang

 

 

 

Project results:

  1. Awareness on sustainable land management issues raised among the institutional actors involved in the development and implementation of sustainable financing mechanisms for SLM stressing on the need of reference and demonstrative site of water, soil and forest all around the country with direct support, promotion and control by the top authorities of the Ministry; the substantial increase in budget received by the National Program for Soil Improvement and Conservation as well as new projects related to SLM.

 

  1. Advocacy for the development of favorable conditions in the regulatory and policy framework, facilitating the development and introduction of sustainable financing mechanisms by the inclusion in the national Plan for Economic and Social Development Specific objective in relation to natural resources and the environment, “to halt soil degradation through the application of sustainable agriculture…” and Specific Objective “to implement economic incentives to achieve financial sustainability in the use and conservation of natural resources”.  This included guidance and strategy materials for the development, administration and application of incentive mechanisms; Financial mechanisms to support SLM developed and applied for diverse conditions and beneficiaries; Improved regulatory and technical instruments for certifying compliance with conditions for incentive mechanisms developed and applied; Training, guidance and awareness-raising programs developed and implemented

 

  1. Programme developed and applied for training institutional actors and producers on Sustainable Land Management with series of hands-on training and extension events closely linked with pilot site demonstrations of solutions for addressing land degradation processes under different biogeographical and production scenarios.

 

 

  1. 07 organizations of producers supported in the formulation of spatial plans for their farms, which will help to ensure that their management practices are appropriately matched to spatial variations in site conditions and take into account spatial flows of environmental goods, services and impacts
Integrating Water, wetland and Ecosystems Management in three villages situated in the division of Wouri, Littoral Region of Cameroon.

Over the past two decades Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia sp.) proliferation has been is a major problem in the Wouri estuary of Douala, Cameroon. This invasive aquatic plant is posing serious ecologic and social problems in the estuary like destruction of local biodiversity, accelerating sedimentation of sand, blocking water surface preventing navigation and asphyxia of marine life in extreme cases. . Reports show that two decades back the invasive aquatic weed was not a problem. However in recent years its population has multiplied and moved from the creeks to inland water bodies in the estuary. The Douala city host 80% of industries in Cameroon and a population of 3,000,000 with a population density of 350 persons per square kilometer. The city harbors the Wouri River which empties into the Atlantic Ocean and constitute a principal wetland. This is attributed to degraded petroleum products from local industries rejected into the estuarial waters is the main cause of environmental hazards in the estuary and dumping most of its waste into the coastal rivers and a major threat to the local biodiversity. Studies show the Wouri estuary has 112,225 Hectares of the invasive water hyacinth plant within a distance of 209Km (Watershed Task Group (WTG) report 2009). The plant is made up of roots, rhizome, petiole and leaves is considered one of the world’s worst weeds as it can double its population in 18 days invading lakes, ponds, canals and rivers and negatively affected the living conditions of indigenous people (Bassa, Bakoko, Pongos, Grassfield) and migrants (Nigerians, Ghanaians, Beninois and Malians) whose major socio-economic activities are fishing, farming, logging, canoe manufacturing and sand digging. And who see sometimes their selves in conflicts oblige to flee major activities constituted.

Project Objective

To contribute to rehabilitation of wetlands and promotion of livelihood improvement opportunities through proven approaches to enhance resilience of socio-ecological systems to the impacts of pollution and climate change.

Results

1)      100 Indigenous people (including women, youth, and migrants) and agents of corporations sensitized on economic and social benefits derived from environmental protection, on social responsible consumption (green consumption); on social responsible investment and on ecological or carbon footprint reduction (energy consumption).

 

2)      46 members of 3 Civic Society Organizations trained on the management of office documents and benefit sharing mechanisms, Ecotourism development, Boat riding, maintenance and safety, Conflict resolution & management within groups, Techniques of sourcing out funding, Techniques of harvesting and valorization of the water hyacinth (compost production), new skills were developed within the community.

 

3)       50,400 Kg or 50.4 tons of water hyacinth harvested in 1 year by indigenous people using the techniques  From the amount of water hyacinth harvested within a specific time frame (3 months) by the Community Initiative Groups.

 

4)      20,000 tons of water hyacinth used/transformed for the fabrication of material (as chairs, bags, art objects…) generating of FCFA 5,760,000 FCFA and 3,456,000 Fcfa from compost production in the village Bonadale.

 

5)      Advocacy operationalized towards:

 

a)       Existing corporations in the locality to introduce within their structure Chief Finance Officer (CFO) greening programs. Greening CFOs means changing the mindset of CFOs through tailored trainings on social and environmental sustainability to enable them influence stakeholders and Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) to ensure that those responsible for sustainability functions should not operate in isolation from the rest of the enterprise especially the finance department. This will therefore help solve corporate problems of risk management tied to environmental and social performance. It will help to design and implement efficiently organizational operational procedures related to occupational health safety security and environment (HSSE) policy.

b)      Government to create a department of Corporation Social Responsibility to reinforce policies on implementation of international conventions by corporations,  to establish incentives for sustainable firms to enable corporations to invest in environmental protection schemes

c)       Ministries of Environment and Forests to apply adequate sanctions for poor environmental management defaulters and design Programs on environmental restoration in order to produce auto replicate outcomes that are transferable to other host communities and adapted to outsource more funding to help sustain program. 

d)      traditional leaders to sensitize their communities members to be open to scientific research while respecting their customs, welcome projects , participate and contribute to permit build their capacity

e)      NGOs as an active part of the civil society to ensure they identify and act as a whistle blower to all activities within their sphere of influence that contribute to minimize environmental degradation.

f)        Researchers to conduct following researches:  “Level or stages of development with reference to environmental sustainability in Cameroon Corporate culture”; “Incorporation of advanced environmental engineering techniques into the Water Hyacinth project”; “Effects of organic manure from the water hyacinth on growth rate of selected plant in non-Littoral regions of Cameroon”; “Production of biogas from the Water Hyacinth plant”; “Effects of water hyacinth proliferation on sand sedimentation rate in the Douala port”; “Comparative study of compost from the water hyacinth and other bio- fertilizers”.

 

6)      Advocacy for the transfer of technologies (like mechanical harvesters, choppers, dryers) employed rather than manual work to increase quantities harvested and reduce time involved in the valorization  process

Title of Project: Accompaniment and support to farmers by demonstrating and promoting anti-erosion techniques in Far North Cameroon.

Context:

The Far North Cameroon region is made up of a diversity of soils and natural resources that give it agricultural and pastoral potential. However, the different uses of these natural resources and the way they are exploited make them vulnerable to degradation. This situation is particularly felt in the department of Diamarré, in the shrub savannas where the exploitation of the man is the most marked by a notorious irrational exploitation as well in traditional culture as in agro pastoralism.

Beyond bad practices, the absence of erosion control in plots, the lack of water control among farmers, the impoverishment of land are and remain the biggest problems. There is a lack of close supervision and support for farmers and a problem of non-return to soil of biogenic elements exported by plants.

With this in mind, it was urgent to look into the possibilities of promoting sustainable development actions in order to reverse the current trends of their degradation targeting women.

Objective: To optimize agricultural and pastoral production through the rational use of soil and water resources for sustainable development

Results

1)      Establishment of a close program of supervision and support to women farmers by promoting and demonstrating anti-erosion techniques and soil fertilization using organic manure.

 

2)      Mobilization of community leaders and women's groups for the inventory and assessment of traditional soil and water conservation technologies and all activities related to this sector

 

3)      Production of simple technical messages of planning and organic fertilization in local language diffused by classical audio-visual channels such as: Posters and radio flash

 

4)      50 women farmers trained and operational in anti-erosion and irrigation management.

 

5)      10 women farmers' organizations have adopted and practice simple and effective techniques for erosion control and irrigation

 

6)      Increase in agricultural and pastoral production through the rational use of soil and water resources for sustainable development and increase of household income through the use of modern and adapted systems of exploitation, fertilization and irrigation. land development.

Challenges:

- Establishment of the land degradation map from aerial photographs or satellite images of the area

 

- Equipment of farmers trained in appropriate tillage equipment (harnessed culture) for the manufacture of composters, transport, spreading and burial of composts.

Slaughterhouse Waste Management Improvement Project in the North Cameroon Region

Slaughterhouses are quite special public or private establishments that prepare meat from animals in order to deliver the most salubrious meats for human consumption. In principle, these slaughterhouses (meat preparation plants) are located along watercourses to facilitate the supply of water necessary for the treatment of carcasses (meat) and viscera or abas.

In the North Cameroon region, there are several slaughterhouses of modern, traditional and semi-traditional type. Slaughterhouses, whether traditional (bush), modern or industrial, as well as most slaughter areas, because of their location near watercourses, discharge fecal matter, blood, and water into the water. other inedible parts. These wastes inevitably pollute water and impact the earth and make it unfit for domestic use and even for watering animals.

In general, the equipment at the slaughterhouse level is reduced because investments have become almost non-existent. The dilapidated nature of this equipment favors the rejection of the majority of the waste in the waters with all the resulting consequences of pollution. Lack of education for some workers and neglect of other slaughterhouse staff forces them to throw carcasses and organs. These often cause diseases such as tuberculosis in streams while meat or carcasses should be destroyed by the appropriate methods.

The disposal of slaughterhouse waste in rivers is a significant source of water pollution. Not only heavy solid loads that are poured daily in rivers impede the flow of water, but also faces carry pathogens (parasites of blood, digestive tract, bacteria) that infect the water and make it unsuitable, otherwise dangerous for humans and cattle that consume it or just for the use of household and agricultural work (watering gardens for example).

The lack of proper logistics, lack of training of technical staff and support staff of these slaughterhouses contributes to water and land pollution. However, feces recovered and dried can for example be used as manure to enrich the cultivable soils to increase agricultural production. Similarly, dried blood, calcined and powdered bones can be used in the feeding of poultry and pigs. The infrastructures present in the slaughterhouses do not make it possible to make profitable this waste. They are simply thrown into the water without fear of the consequences that may occur.

Objective: To reduce land degradation and water pollution through capacity building of community leaders and staff of Garoua and Pitoa slaughterhouses in animal waste treatment techniques.

Results:

1)      50 slaughterhouse staff and 50 community leaders from Garoua and Pitoa sensitized on the treatment of waste (destruction pits, blood drying area, crematorium)

 

2)      50 staff and 50 young leaders sensitized on the need not to throw seized organs into waterways

 

3)      50 sensitized staff and 50 young community leaders trained in waste disposal techniques and methods

 

4)      Use of faeces recovered by agricultural producers to fertilize soils and improve their cultivation.

 

5)      Reduction of river pollution related to slaughterhouse waste

 

6)      Improving the health of populations living downstream of slaughterhouses.

 

Challenge: Supply/need of slaughterhouses infrastructure to make the waste profitable for the

 

communities. 

Using Sustainable Land Management to improve the integrity of the Region of Doss ecosystem and to secure the livelihoods of rangeland-dependent communities

Context

Prevalent land and livestock management processes in Niger’s Makgadikgadi ecosystem are likely to compromise the continued flow of ecosystem goods and services from the savannah ecosystem that are necessary to sustain the national economy, livelihoods and the rich fauna and flora diversity. Local communities need to participate meaningfully in mainstreaming SLM principles into rangeland management and governance in order to secure the ecosystems goods and services necessary for current and future development and maintenance of biodiversity.

However, the effectiveness of their participation is currently hindered by critical barriers, chief among them, inadequate knowledge and skills for adoption of SLM in arable farming, livestock management and livelihood support systems (primarily for the hitherto under-utilized veld products); lack of integrated localized land-use plans and inadequate user-right privileges for resident natural resource users. These barriers are preventing the government and the local communities to achieve the long-term solutions desired for the rangelands. 

Objective:

To remove these barriers by supporting communities to mainstream SLM principles into the Sub-district-wide land-use planning, and at a few pilot sites into both livestock production (through strengthening Farmer’s Associations and providing through them technical backstopping to enable farmers to improve livestock productivity whilst enhancing rangeland conditions) and arable farming (through conservation agriculture).

Results

1)             Set up of systems and capacities for applying SLM principles contributing to an effective rangelands management, reducing land degradation from livestock overstocking and enhancing ecosystem functions (water cycling, soil protection and biodiversity status); and ii) improving the management of uncontrolled fires and fire-affected area and fire-frequency both reduced

 

2)             2 functional farmers’ cooperation within the area with 100 farmers practicing improved and effective herd management

 

3)             An integrated participatory plan covering all the subdivision  developed and approved with involvement of all stakeholders to support sustainable utilization of range resources in a manner that minimizes conflicts amongst sectors (tourism, settlements, agriculture).

 

4)             Improved range management and mixed livelihood systems piloted in line with the land use plans thanks to improved capacity of key land management institutions

 

5)             Active participation from Government, NGOs, water and land user groups, community trusts, community leaders, private sector within the Multi-stakeholder forum for mainstreaming SLM issues in national and regional policies, plans and strategies

 

6)             Three annual status reports on population trends of ‘common birds’ and the habitats on which they depend, largely based on MOMS dataset

 

7)             Effective range management to improve range condition and flow of ecosystem services to support livelihoods of local communities

 

8)             Four integrated community Participatory Land Use and Management Plans produced for four villages and overarching summary document covering all

 

9)             Set up of a system for monitoring of range condition and productivity with the aim to serve as a decision-support tool for farmers and community to help them in planning and implementing SLM strategies, as well as re-evaluating these strategies based on results and impacts.

 

 

10)          Production of rangeland management and monitoring manual for planners and users to facilitate the work of the board jurisdiction in its role of administering, allocating and managing customary land, arable land, residential plots, and making recommendations to the mitigate cases. 

Reforestation and sustainable land and water management in Central Africa Republic project

Context

In recent years, the deterioration of the agricultural and pastoral environment, particularly in the urban areas of some large cities such as Bossangoa, Bozoum, Paoua, Bocaranga and Kagga Bandoro, has only been accentuated by the demographic pressure of urban and peri-urban populations. The land within a radius of 20 to 30 km (depending on the size of the agglomerations) around the centers. Two major areas of degradation have been identified:

  • The immediate peri-urban area within a radius of 5 to 7 km where severe degradation due to complete deforestation, overgrazing and extensive land use is widespread with real beaches of desertification
  • And the rest of the zone where a moderate degradation on almost a quarter of the surface is due to the cotton system.

 

Increasingly, the limit of shrub and tree savannah has only to get further and further away, deforestation for firewood, brick firing, coal and lumber production is increasing day by day.

Water erosion, flaring of the major river bed, silting and siltation of rivers, the change of the hydraulic regime are the main recurring problems that hinder the integrated management of water resources in the Central Africa Republic region situated in the Lake Chad Basin. They are partly related to human activities such as: the deforestation of the banks (market gardening, brickworks ...); the opening of the cotton and food parcels; cuts of firewood (cooking bricks, making coal). All these activities have the direct consequence of reducing the vegetation cover aggravated by the non-control of trickling waters.

Objectives:

Strengthen multi-stakeholder participation in the sustainable management of water and land to improve productivity in targeted areas, reduce erosion through reforestation and soil restoration.

 

Results

1)      Advocacy for the establishment of geomorphological mapping of land use, forms of soil degradation degrees; land use, vocation and soil constraints at 1/5,000 from aerial photographs or available satellite images;

 

2)      Complete census of the rural and peri-urban populations by ethnicity, sex and age groups for each perimeter concerned;

 

3)      Sociological survey report on the land use concerned, the uses of each population concerned, traditional, professional and common interest groups, and the corresponding hierarchies;

 

4)      Report of consultation surveys for the development of development programs in the field with the feasibility study of the various programs (agriculture, livestock, forestry ...);

 

5)      Organization of community activities in favor of sustainable land and water management;

 

6)      Setting up of supervision and animation units for each main activity;

 

7)      Setting up of wooded community plots;

 

8)      Advocacy for the elaboration of a comprehensive plan for infrastructure, financing, dissemination and product management and improvement of rural welfare, continued participation of people in sustainable land management and waters throughout the Central African Republic part of the Lake Chad Basin;

 

 

Mobilizing stakeholders for a national Strategy of commitment on Land Governance in Niger

Context:

Land is one of the cornerstones of economic development on which farmers, pastoralists and other communities base their livelihoods. Land is also a significant component of business assets, which play significant role in business investment strategies. Thus, securing land rights can have a profound impact on economic development. Land in rural areas is both a means of agricultural production, livestock rearing and a place for gathering natural products that play an important role in local economies such as woodcutting, wild harvesting, grazing, fishing, hunting, etc. Furthermore, land is a source of identity and cultural heritage.

Land is an important source of security against poverty across the continent and developing world, unequal rights to land put women at a disadvantage, perpetuate poverty, and entrench gender inequality in Africa. Gender has become a critical issue in women’s land rights due to the fact that there is direct relationship between accessing land resources, having secured land rights, achieving food security and overcoming poverty.

In Niger, country that is affected by Desertification Land degradation and Drought, vulnerable people including women, indigenous people are estimated to produce up to 80–90 per cent of the food. But their rights are not duly taken into account. A majority lack critical land rights: They are not the main decision makers regarding the land they use.

The country has a rural code elaborated in 1970th. There is not an updated national land policy. Vulnerable people shall not be left behind. There is a need to put in place reforms that will formalize and consider the economic, social, and political dimensions of property rights to ensure that vulnerable people. At the same time to be effective in the long term, the reforms must consider the social as well as legal legitimacy of the change they seek.

Objective:

Contribute to the creation of an environment and land policy that responds to and protects the land rights and interests of vulnerable groups such as small farmers, women and indigenous peoples, thus ensuring their socio-economic and cultural well-being.

Expected results

  • Reforms of land laws and policies that benefit vulnerable and marginalized groups are ongoing.
  • Improving transparency and governance in large-scale land investments.
  • Improving secure access to land for vulnerable groups especially women

Main activities

1)      Setting up of self-help groups  to support the community network on lands

 

2)      Community network Capacity building on land rights organized

 

3)      A monitoring group of the land reform process established.

 

4)      Advocacy for the establishment of an emergency fund to assist the victims of violation of their land rights (eviction, farmer breeders' conflicts, etc.) and the populations in situation extremely assistance like refugees.

 

5)      Advocacy for land policies that benefit vulnerable and marginalized groups

 

6)      Sensitization campaign of the population on their land rights

 

7)      Workshops and experience sharing on good practices in land management.

 

 

Improving access to land and strengthening land rights of women in Mali.

Context:

Land is one of the cornerstones of economic development on which farmers, pastoralists and other communities base their livelihoods. Land is also a significant component of business assets, which play significant role in business investment strategies. Thus, securing land rights can have a profound impact on economic development. Land in rural areas is both a means of agricultural production, livestock rearing and a place for gathering natural products that play an important role in local economies such as woodcutting, wild harvesting, grazing, fishing, hunting, etc. Furthermore, land is a source of identity and cultural heritage.

Land is an important source of security against poverty across the continent and developing world, unequal rights to land put women at a disadvantage, perpetuate poverty, and entrench gender inequality in Africa. Gender has become a critical issue in women’s land rights due to the fact that there is direct relationship between accessing land resources, having secured land rights, achieving food security and overcoming poverty.

In Niger, country that is affected by Desertification Land degradation and Drought, women are estimated to produce up to 60–80 per cent of the food. But a majority lack critical land rights: They are allocated the less fertile family land; they are not the main decision makers regarding the land they use; and they do not own the land they use.

The country has a land policy. Land rights must intentionally consider the economic, social, and political dimensions of property rights to ensure that women are not left behind.

Objective:

Contribute to the creation of an environment and land policy that responds to and protects the land rights and interests of women, thus ensuring their socio-economic and cultural well-being.

Results

1)      Advocacy for the promotion of knowledge generation, information sharing and networking at all levels in order to promote land policies that are sensitive to the specific needs of women

 

2)      Organization of capacity workshops with women and girls in leadership for change

 

3)      Organization of  dialogues on women’s land rights issues with authorities and community leaders to raise awareness on the importance of addressing related challenges that hamper socio-economic development, peace and security and environmental sustainability

 

4)      Advocacy for women’s land rights in the context of land policy reform and implementation, and indeed in the context of implementing programs in land based sectors of Mali’s economies

 

5)      Advocacy for the effective synergy and partnerships among Government, civil society, private sector and local partners for addressing women’s land rights

 

6)       Organization of capacity buildings in support of women’s land rights in the context of land policy reform and implementation

 

7)      Advocacy for the development  of monitoring and evaluation tools in support of addressing women’s land rights issues in land policy reform and implementation

 

 

8)      Advocacy for resource mobilization in support of efforts to address women’s land rights in land policy related research, advocacy, capacity building, technical support and advisory services.

Central Africa sub regional caravan on climate change in Democratic Republic of Congo: “from international negotiations to national actions on climate change”

Central African States have acceded to an international instrument called the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), to consider what steps they might take to limit increasing global temperature and mitigating climate change and consequences which result. These States realized in 1995 that the provisions of the Convention relating to the emission reductions were insufficient. Since then, the Parties to the Protocol have continued negotiations and have amended it to achieve more ambitious results by 2030. In the last two years, ( 2015 and 2016) two COPs were organized respectively in Paris and Marrakech. During these two recent conferences of about two weeks each, businesses, investors, cities and local governments, NGOs, the private sector, consultants, and the Working Group of United Nations on Gender, Youth and Civil Society have made new commitments to climate change, in addition to the thousands already formulated in previous years. From the beginning, young people have actively participated in the Conferences of the Parties (COPs) organized by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) In 2009, during the COP15, the UNFCCC secretariat and the UNCCD Member States have formally recognized the youth as observers' constituency (confirming status in 2011) to represent the formal voice youth in the UNFCCC processes. As result, Conference of Youth (COY) has been instituted. The main goal of COY is to organize a space for training and capacity building for young activists participating in the COP. During the COY, many workshops and discussions focus on youth empowerment and scientific provision and political knowledge actions to take.

Women and youth constitute the most important part of our countries populations and present theirselve as vulnerable people. They are the main victims of climate change that hinders their future and their community. Climate change causes drought, land degradation desertification conducing to poverty, unemployment, food insecurity, water rarity, migrations, pandemics and lands conflicts in African countries.   

Many young people and women are not aware of these situations, and the challenges of international and national negotiations on climate change our governments are involved into. Many don’t know the role they can play to engage locally governments to implement the recommendations of international forums on climate change and desertification.

Objective

To mobilize African young people and women to be engaged against climate change to realize social and ecological transformations for our ecosystem safeguard. 

Results

1)      200 young leaders (100 boys and 100 girls) and 100 women leaders trained on climate change and its challenges in Africa and in the world.

 

2)      25 000 people sensitized in schools, markets, churches on climate change and the role they can do to mitigate them. 

 

3)      Advocacies for:

-       The intergovernmental cooperation and strengthened collaboration among governments, civil society, private sector in the fight against climate change;

-       The development by national and regional stakeholders of internal strategies to finance the fight against climate change and to invest in resilience as well as in attenuation;

-       the transfer of technology by developed country profitable to young and women in African countries;

-       the improvement of legislative and legal frames on climate change and desertification and the effectiveness of sanctions to the violation of disposal related to climate change and desertification

-       The coherence of public policies relating to the fight against climate change and desertification;

-       To involve fully vulnerable people in the elaboration and the implementation of Nationa Actions Plan



Reducing land degradation trough the collect, treatment of waste to produce bio gas in Yaoundé.

Context:

Trough of the Gulf of Guinea, Cameroon is the junction between Central Africa and West Africa. Its geographical location explains the variety of its landscapes, its climate, its fauna and its population. Covering an area of 475,000 km2, the population of Cameroon is estimated at about 23 million inhabitants with a population growth of 3692%, leading to an overpopulation of the capital Yaoundé. This city counts in January 2017 more than 3 million inhabitants for about 1,750,000 households, against 2,300,000 inhabitants for 1,500,000 households in 2014. This increase of the population is accompanied by an increase of wild dumps, gullies, pavements and streams, creating a different facies to the city. Such as air burning, wild burial; the filling of the ditches, used by the inhabitants to evacuate these wastes can be harmful and have direct impacts on the hygiene and the living environment. The only company in charge of waste is HYSACAM ( Hygiène et Sallubrité du Cameroun/ Hygiene and health of Cameroon) . This way of managing waste appears like a waste, and does not meet any standard of sustainable development. In fact, the quantity of waste produced in the 7 communes of Yaoundé amounts to more than 658,000 tons of waste in 2015. Over 40% is recyclable, 20% can be processed and 35% is energy-efficient. This proportion of waste represents more than 6 billion CFA francs each year, just for the city of Yaoundé. This observation is the same for all Cameroon divisions. This problem is based on the fact that the services in charge of the waste bury it or burn it at the expense of the economic and social benefits that the latter can generate.

Overall goal:

Reduce land degradation and improve populations living conditions through and environment safeguard trough population mobilization, the collect, the treatment of waste to produce biogaz.

Results

1)      Optimize collection of waste in neighborhoods thanks to population participation. Each sensitized family pays voluntarily 2000 FCFA for the collection of waste and to support the project.

 

2)      Setting up of a material recovery unit in Monayos and a waste management plan with the contribution of the population that has been sensitized to adopt new habits (sorting the waste by color, nature and volume).

 

3)      Employment of 150 young girls and boys within the project thanks to population contribution and Sorted raw material sold to some companies that use them.

 

4)       Capacity building of 150 young people in waste management and treatment and the process of biogas production.     

 

 

5)      Set up of an energy recovery unit consisting in using the energy contained in the waste in order to exploit it to feed populations directly into biogas or indirectly through the production of additional energy products. This axis concerned much more biomass very rich in carbon molecule which is transformed either by pyrolysis, or by hydrothermal oxidation or by methanation or biochemical oxidation.

 

6)      Advocate with the public authorities for a real waste management policy

 

7)      Energetic valorization of recovered biomass. 300 households with biogas installation.

 

Creation of one cooperative “Eco Clean Environment” constituted of young girls and boys involved within the framework that is contributing for their social economic insertion. This team has a project of creation of a center for mechanical, thermal, biological treatment and for material and energy valorization of waste that will cover all Cameroon and Africa. The expected results of this project will be an enhancement of the national economies and reduce unemployment

RECYCLING PLASTIC WASTE TO MANUFACTURE BUILDING MATERIALS (PLASTIC LUMBER)

a) INTRODUCTION

African Network of Young Leaders for Peace and Sustainable Development (ANYL4PSD) isan African Platform established to address the challenges of plastic pollution, urban waste management, unemployment, deforestation and climate change.Our aim is to create a sustainable solution to the growing  plastic waste menace,  create  an  alternative  to timber  and create job opportunities. We use waste plastic as a resource to manufacture eco-friendly plastic lumber. These Eco-friendly building materials (Plastic lumber) made from recycled plastics are ideal for fencing on farms, homes, national parks, forest reserves and commercial places.

b) THE PROBLEM:

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Solid waste management is one of the environmental challenges that many African cities are struggling to contain. As the population in most cities is growing so is the production of solid waste. In this equation, environmental friendly and sustainable measures to manage the waste are lacking.   Tanzania is one of those countries caught up in this situation. Tanzania generates about 32 million plastic bags per month half of which end up in solid waste stream. Plastic bags constitute one of the greatest environmental challenges in most African countries. The situation in Dar-es-salaam City in Tanzania is not any different. The city is choking in solid wastes. Heaps of solid wastes can be found in uncontrolled haphazard locations within the business district as well as the residential areas. While both the city administrators and environmentalist recognize the health hazards and risks involved, the lack of economic and technological capacity has left the city dwellers and residents grasping for help. Landfill and burning is the most common method used in Dar-es-salaam.

c) THE SOLUTION:

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In the mids to fall these problems, we noticed that demand and price for timber posts was rising due to short supply. Up to 200,000 timber posts were sold in and around our capital city every month. If only we could produce an alternative to timber that was nearly as strong, longer lasting, cheaper and environmentally sustainable, we could profit from the lucrative timber market while helping to save Tanzania’s endangered forests.

Plastic waste provides the opportunity to create a better alternative to timber. Using plastic collected from the streets and landfills of our capital, our  business uses a simple manufacturing technique known as injection molding to convert shredded and melted plastic into durable and environment-friendly posts. These posts are besold on the market and used as fencing posts, sign posts and for building and construction purposes.

The business strategy is to create economic value on plastic at the points of generation to enable the households/farms/companies to sort and sell plastics in order to earn income. In this way, no plastic will find its way onto the streets. The plastics will be transformed into more durable plastic lumber and planks.

The business has a big social impact as it generates employment for individuals at the initial stages of the value chain, mostly youth and women, who collect, sort and clean plastic waste for reselling. By the 3rd year of operation, we aim to create 100 direct and over 500 indirect jobs.

d) THE INNOVATION:

We are involved in recycling these unwanted plastic waste that are thrown everywhere littering the streets, clogging sewers and encroaching people’s homes into aesthetic, durable and environmentally friendly plastic lumber. In addition to providing a solid waste management solution for the country, we provide an alternative to timber thus saving our forests. The posts are 6 to 10 ft in length, circular, 2–4 inches diameter, or square, 2–4 inches cross-section. They do not rot, are termite resistant, out last timber in application and can be cut, drilled and nailed as easily as timber.

The posts are suitable for fencing on farms, homes, national parks, game reserves and commercial premises such as cattle ranches and tourist resorts. They can also be used as support beams for houses, cowsheds and garages. Smaller profiles can be used to make chicken houses, rabbit houses, cowsheds and garages.

 

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Fencing using plastic lumbers made from recycled plastic waste

 

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e) PROJECT IMPACT

As a green business our goal is triplefold; to recycle waste plastic and thus provide an alternative waste management solution to the plastic menace, to provide an affordable alternative to timber(To curb deforestation and reduce the effects of climate change) and to provide employment and thus a source of living to many unemployed youths.

As the world is emphasizing on reducing the effects of climate change, our project provides an alternative product to timber so as to conserve our forests & maintaining them as water catchments areas. Forests act as carbonsinks by removing CO2 from the atmosphere hence mitigating climate change. Our Plan is for coming three years to with draw over 1million kilograms of plastic from the environment and use them to manufacture plastic lumber and save an estimated 250 acres of forest (based on calculations by the Canadian Forestry Association). Plastic recycling also saves 2.5kgCO2/kg plastic hence we will be preventing 2,500,000kg of CO2 emissions further mitigating climate change.

       Environmental impact

All plastic lumbers are manufactured from post-consumer plastic and are 100% recyclable. Like this, 25 metric tons of plastic wastes are permanently with drawn from the environment every month. Moreover, the plastic lumber offers an alternative fencing material to wood and there fore reduce deforestation. Forevery 25 posts sold, we save a fully matured Red Cedar Tree.

       Social Impact

We generate employment for individuals at the initial stages of the value chain, mostly youth and women, who collect, sort and clean plastic waste for reselling. By the 3rd year of operation, EcoAct Ltd aims to create 100 direct and over 500 indirect jobs.

       Economic impact

Contracts with there sidents and institutions to provide fencing posts will achieve significant earnings. Moreover, the our plastic lumber offer significant cost savings to buyers due to reduced maintenance and replacement requirements and their long durability.

f) THE MARKET AND BUSINESS MODEL

The total domestic fence market is approximately $1 billion per year with the synthetic fencing segment being $100 million per year with a historical 2% per year growth rate. Our goal, which is very achievable, is to capture two percent of the synthetic fence market, which is $1.5million, by 2020. Keeping in mind that we only face a few competitors in fencing and our  product is stronger  and more durable,  priced considerably less, and greener.

 

Customers

  • Companies - Real estate developers, advertising agencies, domestic home developers, telecommunication infrastructure contractors, road contractors, wild life conservation agencies and farmers.
  • Government- the Tanzania government has this ambitious plan to fence off wildlife parks to reduce human/wildlife conflict. They are looking for more durable and affordable fencing poles.
  • Households/farmers- there is high deficit in supply of wooden poles in the western region. This will reduce the long term maintenance cost for families and farmers.

g) PRODUCT COMPETITIVE FEATURES

An important feature of plastic lumber products is the fact that they last longer than traditional wood products. Moreover, due to the annual maintenance cost of staining wood based products (materials, labor andtime); plastic lumber products actually costless than wood products after approximately four(4) years.

Some of competitive features for plastic lumber include

       Eco-friendly product made from 100% recycled waste plastic.

       No chemical treatment

       Does not rot and cannot be eaten by termites hence lasts longer.

       Do not splinter.

       Out lasts timber in application.

       Can be cut, drilled and nailed just as easily as timber using the same wood working tools.

       Won’t be stolen for use as firewood as is currently happening in many parts of our country.

       Offers longterm cost effectiveness due to reduced maintenance and replacement.

       Has anaesthetic look, with a regular shape and as mooth and/or timber-like finish.