Action Program on Migration and Trafficking (AP_MIGT)


Migration is the movement of people from one place to another, especially from one country to another for political, social, economic or personal reasons. Migration can be the fact of either an entire population or individuals integrating into a wider societal phenomenon. Migration is an inherent characteristic of freedom of movement and the right to mobility. Thus, because of drought, desertification, natural or human disasters, conflicts with, the globalization of the market economy, the development of technology and the processes of transnationalization of human mobility, this phenomenon has grown.

In the Maghreb, the migration issue is no longer one-dimensional. Originally a land of emigration, the Maghreb has become a transit region for migrants trying to reach Europe and it is also a region of immigration for the populations who settle there because they can’t cross the Mediterranean. Obviously, the clear conclusion is that: the situation of migrants crossing the Maghreb region continues to deteriorate, the acts of violence against them follow and are similar (verbal abuse, attacks and physical assault, assault and battery), the number of deaths is constantly increasing, both in the Mediterranean and on the roads of the Sahara. It must be said that the Maghreb is nowadays more or less involved in a problem of criminalization of migrants, both in terms of migrants on its soil, or because of the EU, concerning migrants (sub-Saharans and North Africans too) who try to cross its borders from the Maghreb side.For many years now, the media has regularly reported on the increasing number of collective attempts to cross irregular sub-Saharan migrants on European soil, including through the Spanish enclave of Ceuta and Mellila. This migration route between Africa and Europe, however, is not new; moreover, it was through it that the “scandal” came as this road represented, almost twenty years ago now, the ultimate danger threatening Europe against organized and solidarity “clandestine” (Laacher, 2007; Alioua, 2011).

In the face of Maghreb migratory flows increasingly organized, Europe has acquired new instruments to prevent unwanted Maghreb emigration through the policy of “chosen” emigration and the tightening of anti-migration measures.  European states have structured a restrictive immigration policy to ensure strict control over the external borders of Europe and beyond Europe, control over the borders of the Maghreb countries, sources of immigration not only sub-Saharan but also Maghreb. This policy was “inspired” by the Maghreb countries in order to bring their internal penal legislation in line with the international policy on the subject adopted by the UN under the influence of the industrialized countries including those of Europe.

Freedom of movement and migration is one of the fundamental rights recognized to people by reference to the universal principles of human rights adopted today by most societies. On this basis, the freedom to migrate must absolutely be regulated but also respected, not denied or violated.

Illegal immigration is a serious problem for African Union. More than 280,000 people crossing borders illegally were counted in 2014. More than 500,000 migrants have been detected in the first 8 months of 2015. Although the exact proportion is unknown, it is likely that the majority of migrants have appealed illicit traffic services. Migrants who use these services run considerable risks; the death toll is increasing, especially among migrants who cross the southern Mediterranean by boat. The smuggling of migrants is a phenomenon in constant evolution. In African countries, the itineraries are not immutable but subject to change and are not delimited from end to end, individuals choosing to go through different sections according to their needs.In many countries, illegal or irregular migrants have become, in principle, persons whose trafficking is managed by organized criminal networks, which maintain cross-border criminality with transnational ramifications.

The UN has adopted a number of instruments relating to migrations that includes the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, the Additive Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea, Air. The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime of 15/2/2000, ratified by Algeria on 5/2/2002 and the two additional protocols to the Convention, ratified on 9/11/2003). But these instruments are not fully internalized by states parties.

Africans are not sufficiently aware of the consequences of irregular migrations and the conditions of regular migrations. There is a need for our countries in partnership with others countries to turn migration into a real tool of Africa development.


  1. Vision

By 2030 migration is a real instrument of African countries development thanks to multi-actors participation to mitigate the adverse drivers and structural factors that hinder people from building and maintaining sustainable livelihoods in their countries of origin and the implementation of United Nations and regional instruments relative to migration, human trafficking and human rights.

  1. Principles

This program rests on a set of guiding principles

  • People-centred
  • International cooperation
  • National sovereignty
  • Rule of law and due process
  • Sustainable development
  • Human rights
  • Gender-responsive
  • Child-sensitive
  • Whole-of-government approach
  • Whole-of-society approach


The following “strategic objectives” will guide the actions of ANYL4PSD by 2030. Meeting these long-term objectives will contribute to achieving the above-mentioned vision.

Strategic objective 1: To improve people understanding on regular and irregular migrations Expected impact 1.1: Ignorance of people on regular and irregular migrations and their consequences is reduced.

Expected Impact 1.2: Ignorance of people on the conditions of regular migrations is reduced.

Strategic objective 2: To report periodically on migration Expected impact 2.1: Curate and disaggregated data are collected as a basis for evidence-based policies

Expected impact 2.2: Information at all stages of migration are timely provided

Strategic objective 3: To increase country commitment to improve migrants’ conditions and social inclusionExpected impact 3.1: Strengthened procedures and mechanisms human rights-based and protection-sensitive for status determination

Expected impact 3.2: proof of legal identity, proper identification and documentation are provided to all migrants

Expected impact 3.3: Enhanced consular protection, assistance and cooperation throughout the migration cycle

Expected impact 3.4: Use migration detention only as a last resort and work towards alternatives

Expected impact 3.5: vulnerabilities in migration are addressed and reduced

Expected impact 3.6 Basic accesses to social services for migrants provided

Expected impact 3.7 Faster, safer and cheaper transfer of remittances promoted, financial inclusion of migrants fostered

Expected impact 3.8fair and ethical recruitment and safeguard conditions that ensure decent work are facilitated to citizens

Expected impact 3.9 migrants and societies are empowered to realize full inclusion and social cohesion

Expected impact 4.0: All forms of discrimination and fact-based public discourse promoted to shape perceptions of migration eliminated

Expected impact 4.1 Conditions for migrants and Diasporas to fully contribute to sustainable development created

Strategic objective 2: To report periodically on migration Expected impact 2.1: Curate and disaggregated data are collected as a basis for evidence-based policies

Expected impact 2.2: Information at all stages of migration are timely provided

Strategic objective 4: To increase joint synergy and coordinated actions to combat trafficking and irregular migration, make regular migration a tool for sustainable development

Expected Impact 4.1: National and regional strategies on migrations and trafficking adopted and implemented

Expected Impact 4.2: adverse drivers and structural factors that compel people to leave their country of origin are minimized

Expected impact 4.3: Availability and flexibility of pathways for regular migration are enhanced

Expected impact 4.4:  International efforts to save lives of migrants are enhanced

Expected impact 4.5: The transnational response to smuggling of migrants is strengthened

Expected impact 4.6: Trafficking in persons on the context of international migration is prevent and combat

Expected impact 4.7 borders are manage in an integrated, secure and coordinated manner

Expected impact 4.8 dignified and sustainable return, readmission and reintegration of migrants ensured

Expected impact 4.9 mechanisms for the portability of social security entitlements and earned benefits established


For the effective implementation of this strategic plan, concerted efforts at global, regional, national and subnational levels are required.

  • ANYL4PSD commit to take the necessary steps to bring our national actions and cooperation frameworks at all levels in line with the objectives and actionable commitments herein, taking into account our countries’ specific migration realities and priorities.
  • We decide to establish a capacity-building mechanism that allows Member States, the United Nations and other stakeholders, including the private sector and philanthropic foundations, to contribute technical, financial and human resources in order to strengthen capacities of national and subnational authorities on migration.
  • We also commit to implement the Global Compact in cooperation and partnership with civil society, migrant and diaspora organizations, cities and local communities, the private sector, trade unions, parliamentarians, National Human Rights Institutions, academia, and the media.
  • We request the UN Secretary General to (a) align and review the set-up of the United Nations system on migration with the ongoing management and development system reform initiatives in order to ensure system-wide coherence (b) build on the technical expertise and experience of relevant agencies within the United Nations system to support the efforts of Member States in the implementation of the objectives and actionable commitments of the Global Compact
  • Further recognizing the important role of State-led processes and platforms at global and regional levels in advancing the international dialogue on migration, we invite the Global Forum on Migration and Development, Regional Consultative Processes and other global, regional and subregional fora to provide platforms to exchange experiences on the implementation of the Global Compact, share good practices on policies and cooperation, promote innovative approaches, and foster multi-stakeholder partnerships around specific policy issues.