Niger – Mécanisme de Réponse Rapide (RRM)

Aperçu des résultats des évaluations rapides multisectorielles effectuées par le RRM entre les mois de novembre 2020 et janvier 2021

La réponse humanitaire au Niger est rendue plus difficile de par la crise sécuritaire liée à l’instabilité croissante dans les pays frontaliers. Cette situation a entrainé l’afflux de milliers de réfugiés (nigérians, maliens et burkinabés) et de personnes déplacées internes (PDI) qui exercent une pression supplémentaire sur les ressources et les infrastructures sociocommunautaires de base dans les régions de Diffa, Tillabéri, Tahoua et Maradi. La population exposée à l’insécurité alimentaire est estimée à deux millions d’habitants pour l’année 2021. Pour dresser un état des lieux des besoins humanitaires dans les plus brefs délais, les membres du Consortium RRM conduisent des évaluations multisectorielles (MSA) d’urgence et des évaluations rapides de protection (ERP), auprès des personnes déplacées à la suite d’un choc (mouvements de population suite à un conflit armé principalement, catastrophes naturelles, incendies). Dans le cadre d’un partage trimestriel, cette fiche d’information vise à comparer les besoins humanitaires et les vulnérabilités des populations déplacées dans les sites enquêtés lors des MSA afin de voir l’évolution des déplacements/interventions ainsi que les besoins humanitaires encore non couverts. Les informations présentées ici sont issues de l’analyse des rapports MSA et de la matrice de suivi des interventions entre les mois de novembre 2020 et de janvier 2021.

La situation sécuritaire au Niger reste encore très volatile. En effet, sur la période du 1er novembre 2020 au 31 janvier 2021, 154 incidents sécuritaires ont été enregistrés au Niger et les régions de Diffa et de Tillabéri sont les plus touchées par ces incidents selon les données de The Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED)3. En plus, l’analyse diachronique des incidents sécuritaires entre les mois de novembre 2019 et janvier 2021 nous indique 110 incidents. Ce qui montre clairement que la situation sécuritaire en 2020 au Niger est davantage volatile. Ces incidents sécuritaires sont essentiellement des attaques perpétrées à l’encontre de la population civile, des affrontements armés et des pillages, le banditisme transfrontalier ainsi que des destructions de biens.

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Afrique de l’Ouest : Gestion des migrations en Côte d’Ivoire et au Niger

En 2019, l’Organisation internationale pour les migrations (OIM) a recensé 8,4 millions de migrants en Afrique de l’Ouest. Moins de 10 % d’entre eux se rendent en Europe. Contrairement aux idées reçues, l’essentiel des migrations est donc sud-sud, voire intra régional : 84 % des migrants ouest-africains se dirigent vers un autre pays de la sous-région. Les flux migratoires dans la sous-région sont dominés par des mouvements partant des États enclavés du Sahel vers les pays du littoral. Le profil migratoire de chaque pays est cependant différent : la Côte d’Ivoire et le Nigeria, deux États côtiers, accueillent le plus de migrants, avec respectivement 2,6 et 1,3 millions de Maliens, Sénégalais, Burkinabés et Guinéens. Le Mali et le Burkina Faso, pays enclavés, sont quant à eux d’importantes terres d’émigration. Près de 10 % de la population burkinabè et 7,6 % des Maliens vivent en dehors de leur pays d’origine. Enfin, d’autres États servent de zone de transit. C’est le cas du Niger, devenu un important pivot pour les migrants souhaitant gagner la Libye, l’Algérie ou l’Europe. Le Sénégal, quant à lui, est à la fois une source importante d’immigrants, d’émigrants et un point de transit. Il existe également des corridors migratoires entre certains États comme l’illustre le cas des migrants burkinabè qui privilégient l’émigration vers la Côte d’Ivoire. Considérant que la majorité des flux migratoires s’opère au niveau sous-régional, l’objectif de cet éclairage est de comprendre la manière dont les pays ouest-africains abordent la question des migrations sur leur territoire. Nous commencerons d’abord par évoquer les principales causes des migrations au sein du sous-continent africain. Ensuite, nous analyserons l’approche adoptée et les mesures mises en place par l’organisation sous régionale ouest-africaine, la Communauté économique des États de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO). Enfin, nous nous pencherons sur les politiques d’accueil et de contrôle des migrations développées par la Côte d’Ivoire, à la fois pays d’accueil et d’émigration, et le Niger, pays « de transit ».

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Overview of Serious and Organised crime in West Africa

Transnational organized crime in West Africa is a persistent threat. As a result, INTERPOL, under the European Union funded ENACT Project, has sought to catalogue and assess organized crime in the region in order to drive a more strategic law enforcement response.

International criminal organizations continue to target the region especially because of the significant illicit wealth that can be generated, stemming from criminal market opportunities that exploit various social and political vulnerabilities, state fragility, limited policing capacities, and corruption.
International criminal organizations or networks operate everywhere in the region via key facilitators and bring together a significant array of crime syndicates that provide illicit goods and services everywhere.

Crime syndicates remain highly connected across borders and are active in a number of illicit markets, notably drug trafficking, financial crimes, human trafficking, people smuggling, counterfeit goods, organized theft and robbery, environmental crimes, and maritime piracy. In addition, there are a number of enabling crimes such as cybercrime, and the trade in small arms and light weapons that are supporting organized criminality throughout the region, which overlap with all illicit markets noted in complex ways.

Organized crime in the region generates huge profits for all involved and there are substantial illicit interregional financial flows and illicit profits heading offshore, plus money laundering occurring on a global scale. The threat from organized crime in West Africa is substantial yet there is limited capacity amongst law enforcement to manage this complex issue. Organized crime is going underreported and undetected, but various data sources reveal the following major activities and dynamics of groups and networks active in the region, which need to be addressed strategically and through building greater partnerships amongst all law enforcement agencies in the region.

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Overview of Organized crime in Africa

International criminal organizations continue to target Africa because of the significant illicit wealth that can be generated, stemming from criminal market opportunities that exploit various social and political vulnerabilities, state fragility, and limited policing capacities present on the continent. International criminal organizations or networks operate everywhere in Africa via key facilitators and bring together a significant array of crime syndicates and street gangs that provide illicit goods and services.


Crime syndicates remain highly connected across borders and are active in a number of illicit markets, notably drug trafficking, human trafficking and people smuggling, environmental crimes, financial crimes, counterfeited goods, works of art trafficking, stolen motor vehicles trafficking and maritime piracy. In addition, there are enabling crimes such as cybercrime, and the trade in small arms and light weapons that are supporting organized criminality throughout the continent which overlap with all of the illicit markets noted in complex ways. Organized crime in Africa generates huge profits for all involved, and there are substantial illicit interregional financial flows and illicit profits moving throughout the continent and often heading offshore. Money laundering relating to all criminal market activities is occurring on a global scale.


The threat from organized crime in Africa is substantial, yet there is limited capacity amongst law enforcement to manage this complex issue at a national, regional and continental level. Organized crime is going under-reported and undetected, but various data sources reveal the following major activities and dynamics of groups and networks, which need to be addressed strategically, through building greater partnerships amongst all law enforcement agencies everywhere on the continent.

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Impact of Climate Change on Major Staple Food Crops and Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies in Atacora.

  1. INTRODUCTION

Agriculture is the biggest single industry in many developing countries of the world. Benin is a West African country in which agriculture plays an important economic role. The agricultural sector employs about 70% of the population and contributes to 39% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Awoye, 2015) of Benin. It also provides about 88% of the country’s export earnings (Awoye, 2015). The lack of modern farming technologies, poor soil, land degradation, and the rapid population growth constitute the challenges that Benin agriculture is facing. In Benin, the farmers rely highly on the rain-fed agriculture for crop productions. The high dependence on rain-fed agriculture combined with low socioeconomic development expose subsistence agriculture farmers to external shocks such as climate variability and climate change impacts. Empirical evidence reveals that the increasing of global temperature is likely to boost agricultural production in the temperate region, and it is expected to reduce yields in the tropical regions of the world (WTO –UNEP, 2009). Studies conducted by Afouda (1990), Houndénou (1999), Ogouwalé (2006)and Boko (1988) cited by Tidjani (2012) , revealed that there is increasing of minimum temperature and agricultural season length is shortening in Benin. Some regional climate models predict a decrease of annual rainfall up to 30% by 2050 in Benin with a significant within- region differences (Paeth et al., 2008). This change will decrease yield production already challenged by limited access to capital, markets, infrastructure and technology. Benin has already experienced food insecurity and climate change will exacerbate it through the increase in frequency of adverse weather events. The Northwest part of Benin (Atacora) is characterized by a unimodal rainfall regime (peak in August). This means the district is more heavily exposed to the impact of climate change. A well-known study in this respect is the one carried out on farmers’ perception and impact of climate change on production and yam varietal diversity in Northwest of Benin (Loko et al., 2013). Fewresearch works have been conducted in that on the impacts of climate change on the major staple food crops and farmers’ adaptation strategies to this change in the district. This present study examines the impact of climate change on major staple food crops (yam, maize, sorghum, and rice and bean productions) and farmers’ adaptation strategies to this change in Atacora. The section 2 explaines the methodogy used to achieve the goal of this study. The section 3 shows the results of the analysis.

  1. MATERIALS and METHODS

The study area is the Atacora, located in northwest Benin, it counts nine communes, which are: Natitingou, Kérou, Kouandé, Péhunco, Cobly, Boukoumbé, Matéri, Toucountouna, and Tanguiéta. It shares borders with the Republic of Burkina-Faso in the North, a Donga district in the South, Alibori and Borgou district in the East and Republic of Togo to the West (Figure 1). This district is characterized by a unimodalrainfall distribution (peak in August). The rainfall is unpredictable and irregular with an average between 800 and 950 mm per year (Dansi, Adoukonou-sagbadja, &Vodouhe, 2010). The wet season starts from late mid-June to late October while April-May is the dry season. The landscape in this region is composed of Rocky Mountains, with tropical ferruginous soils and wetland (Dansi et al., 2010). The territory of Atacora consists of 772,262 inhabitants unequally distributed in 384 villages (RGPH-4, 2013). The mean population density is 38 inhabitants/km2 (RGPH-4, 2013). The district is inhabited by seven ethnic groups Bariba, Berba, Ditamari, Lamba, Natimba, Wama and Bialli (Dansi and al., 2010). The main livelihood of the population is farming.

For this study, five communes (Boukoumbe, Cobly, Kérou, Matéri, and Toucontouna) have been selected based on the ethnolinguistic map of Benin and the agricultural potential of each commune. Two villages were chosen per commune. An exploratory survey was conducted to identify the two villages retained for this study. Within each village the interviews were conducted to identify the major staple food crops grown and communities’ adaptive measures developed to cope with the adverse impacts of climate change in the five communes. The temperature (°C), and rainfall (mm) data from 1986 to 2016 was obtained from the National Meteorological Service of Benin while data on major staple food crops for 1986 to 2016 was collected from CARDER (Centre d’Action Régional de Dévelopement Rural) and INSAE (Institut National de Statistique et de l’Analyse Economique). The total annual crop productions of five communes for each major staple food crops grown were obtained by calculating the sum of each crop production of five communes. The rainfall and temperature anomalies were calculated for all the years from the use of the long-term mean, yearly mean and the standard deviation using equation below:

φ = x- x ̅ / σ

Where φrepresents the anomaly value of rainfall and temperature, x is the actual value of each parameter (temperature and rainfall), x ̅ is the long term mean value of each parameter (temperature and rainfall), σ is the standard deviation.

For each major staple food crops the multiple linear regressions model were realized to see their associations with temperature and rainfall. A statistical test was performed using the Software R software. Also, the Excel spreadsheet was used to design the figures.

The model is specified asWhere, Y represents yam, maize, bean, sorghum and rice outputs at time I, x Temperature 1, x Rainfalls 1,μ Stochastic term β β and β = constants

Figure 1. Map of Atacora District

  1. RESULTS

3.1. Climatic condition in Atacora

Observed rainfall and temperature trends

Figure 2.Standardized anomalies of rainfall and temperature in Atacora

The analysis of figure 2 shows the variations trends of temperature and rainfall distribution in Atacora from 1986-2016. Between 1986 to 1997, the temperature trend have been fluctuating and decreasing with values ranging from -1.85 to -0.35°C while a positive trend of temperature was observed from 1998 to 2016. For the precipitation, the positive trend was recorded over the period 1986 to 2004 and the reverse in trend was observed 2004 to 2016.

3.2. Farmers’ strategies for adaptation to climate change in ATACORA

Farmers have adopted different strategies to adapt to climate change and climate variability. Farming is the main occupation for the majority of the sample households. Based on the household survey data collected from 422 households, the farmers reported that they are using different adaptation strategies to reduce the negative impact of climate change. Thirteen (3.08%) farmers use agroforestry (nere’, Shea, tree species), sixty-five farmers shift their cropping calendars (15.4%), fifty-nine farmers (13.98%) exploit the shallows for their crop production, fifty-five farmers use mixed cropping(13.03%), seventy-five farmers apply chemical fertilizers and pesticides (17.78%), hundred-five farmers adopt short season crop with high yield (24.89%), thirty-eight farmers use agricultural expansion (9%), and twelve farmers (2.84%) breed animals to compensate crop failure due to climate variability (Figure 3). The strategy used by each farmers, has a specific purpose, although the ultimate and common goal is adaptation to climate change. Some farmers who practice agro-forestry (integrate trees and crops) had a deep knowledge of the benefits of such practice: preventing soil erosion, reducing losses of water, availability of organic matter and nutrients, reducing the amount of agricultural insect pests and associated diseases etc. The mixed cropping frequently mentioned by farmers was: maize–sorghum, sorghum-millet, maize–groundnut, maize–bean, maize–millet–sorghum, and maize -cassava. It should also be noted that farmers associate these practices with a concern for preserving food and nutritional security of the household. Farmers are seeking to increase the chances of guaranteeing a minimum of products after harvesting. “If one fails, the other can succeed,” said the respondents. Farmers used short season crop with high yield, and shallows as an adaptation strategy to reduce the adverse effect of climate change. They also used chemical fertilizers to increase crop productivity and pesticides to control pests and diseases. In addition, some farmers have adopted small ruminant and poultry farming to diversify their sources of income.

Figure 3.

Farmers’ strategies for adaptation to climate change

3.3. Agricultural productions in Atacora

Yield of major staple food crops in Atacora

Figure 4 shows the evolution of yield of the main agricultural commodities over the thirty years. The figure shows that yam, rice and maize have dominated the increases in production over time. The yield increases for sorghum and the produced beanhas been slow as compared to the yam, rice and maize production. This has happened as a result of the strategy adaptation adopted by the farmers to cope with the negative impacts of climate variation. As strategy, the farmers reducing crop area of long crop seasons (sorghum) and increasing cultivated land of short season crop with high yield (maize and rice). Bean areas have not increased because of theincreasing pests and diseases for this crop. Yam production has increased mostly as a result of area expansion. Despite the fact that there is no introduction of new breeds of yam-seedlings, the cultivated land of this culture is expanded as the main means to maintain the level of yam production because of the important role that this crop plays in cultural practices. This is a reflection of the lack of support for agricultural production of yam, bean and sorghum, the lack of inputs and services to support the intensification of these crops production systems.

Figure 4.Yield of major staple food crops in Atacora over thirty years

  • Relationship between climate variables and crop yields

Several recent studies (Jarvis et al., 2012; Rosenthal & Ort, 2012; and Liu et al., 2008) indicate that climate change in Africa will have variable impacts on crops, with both production losses and gains possible. The multiple regressions were used to see the associations of climatic variables with crop yields in Atacora. The results revealed that the rainfall has significant effect on the output of maize and sorghum at four percent (4%) and for bean at three percent (3%) with a negative coefficient of -0.78, -0.23 and -0.31(Table 1). This result shows that if the rainfall increases by one unit (1), then maize, sorghum and bean outputs will decrease by 0.23, 0.31, and 0.78 kilograms respectively in the long run. Rice and yam outputs show that the temperature has a significant effect on rice and yam with a positive coefficient of 62.2 and 70.5 respectively implying that if temperature increases by one unit rice and yam outputs will increase by 62.2 and 70.5 kilograms respectively (Table 1).

Table 1.Multiple regression results according to climate variables and crop yields

Dependent variables

Independent variables

Coefficient

Std. Error

t value

Pr(>|t|

Rice

Intercept

-144.1

162.25

-3.26

0.002**

Rainfall

-0.45

1.45

-0.31

0.75ns

Temperature

62.25 

17.5  

3.55

0.001**

 

     

Maize

Intercept

2503.67

5199.51

0.48

0.63ns

 

Rainfall

-0.78

0.37

-2.10

0.04 *

 

Temperature

 -2.38

150.77

-0.01

0.98ns

 

     

Sorghum

Intercept

4072.56

1543.91

2.63

0.01 *

Rainfall

-0.23

0.11

-2.09

0.04 *

Temperature

-88.11

44.76 

-1.96

0.05 ns

 

     

Bean

Intercept

-511.03

2026.53

-0.25

0.80ns

Rainfall

-0.31

0.14

-2.17

0.03*

Temperature

53.08

58.76

0.90

0.37ns

 

     

Yam

Intercept

-118.47

79.44

-1.49

0.14

Temperature

70.56 

31.16  

2.26  

0.03 *

Rainfall

1.49

1.05

0.3860.38

0.70

Note: *= Significant at 5%    ns= non-significant

 

CONCLUSION

The study examines the effects on temperature and rainfall variability on yam, maize, bean, sorghum and rice output in Atacora from 1986 to 2016 and farmers’ adaptation strategies to this change. Results from the study revealed that there is an increase in temperature and decreasing rainfall pattern in the study area. Also, this study discovers that temperature significantly affects outputs of yam and rice while rainfall has significant effect on the output of maize, bean, sorghum over the period under study. In response to climate variation, farmers adjust their cropping calendars by shifting either forward or backward the timing of land preparation and seedling, adopt short season crop with high yield, use the shallows for agricultural productions, use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, reducing land of long crop seasons and increasing cultivated land of short duration high yielding crops. The use of chemical fertilizers release the nitrous oxide into the atmosphere which is the most important contribution of GHGs related to agriculture. As the population continues to grow and progress is made in achieving food and nutrition security for the population, chemical fertilizer use will increase for the foreseeable future. This will increase concentrations of nitrous oxide in the atmosphere and will cause a heavy strain on the environment as well as on the quality of the food produced.The problems of climate change are already with us, therefore the private sectors and Beninese government should focus on improved agricultural productivity by developing technology which will not contribute to changes in climate, but increased production through proper funding and implementation. With the decreasing rainfall amount and increasing of temperature, Beninese government should start to invest on irrigation farming in this locality rather than relying more on rain-fed agriculture that is highly unreliable and becoming more unpredictable. In addition, farmers should be sensitized about the negative effects of the long-term application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides on the environment, human health and soil fertility.

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Awoye, O. H. R. (2015). The implication of Future Climate Change on Agricultural production in Tropical West Africa. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), Porto-Novo (Benin), 1-189.I

Ayanlade, A. (2010). Impacts of climate variability on tuber crops in Guinea Savanna part of Nigeria: a GIS approach. Journal of Geography and …, 2(1), 27–35. Retrieved from http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jgg/article/download/7274/5762

Dansi, A., Adoukonou-sagbadja, H., &Vodouhe, R. (2010). Diversity, conservation and related wild species of Fonio millet ( Digitaria spp.) in the northwest of Benin. Genet Resour Crop Evol 57:827–839.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-009-9522-3

Ejikeme, O., &Akpabio, E. M. (2017). The geography of yam cultivation in southern Nigeria: exploring its social meanings and cultural functions. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 4 (1), 28‐35 https:doi.org/10.1016/j.jef.2027.02.004

 

Eregha, P. B., Babatolu, J. S., &Akinnubi, R. T. (2014). Climate change and crop production in Nigeria: An error correction modelling approach. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 4(2), 297–311. Retrieved from http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2s2.084897106987&partnerID=40&md5=333625e2e579aba6c9ef15ea1790a8f3

 

Jarvis, A., Ramirez-Villegas, J.,  Campo, B.V.H., & Navarro-Racines, C. (2012). Is cassava the answer to African

climate change adaptation? Tropical Plant Biology, 5(1), pp.9-29.

 

Liu, J. , Fritz, S. ,. vanWesenbeeck, C.F.A, Fuchs, M. , You, L., Obersteiner, M. , & Yang, H. (2008). A spatially explicit assessment of current and future hotspots of hunger in sub-Saharan Africa in the context of global change. Global and Planetary Change, 64(3-4), pp. 222-235.

 

Loko, Y. L., Dansi, A., Agre, A. P., Akpa, N., Assogba, P., Dansi, M., &Sanni, K. A. A. (2013).Perceptions paysannes et impacts des changements climatiques sur la production et la diversité variétale de l ’ igname dans la zone aride du nord-ouest du Bénin, 7(April), 672–695.

 

Mikova, K. (2015). Effect of Climate Change on Crop Production in Rwanda. Earth Sciences, 4(3), 120. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.earth.20150403.15

Paeth, H., Hall, N.M.J., Gaertner, M.A., Dominguez Alonso, M., Moumouni, S., Polcher, J., Ruti, P.M., Fink, A.H., Gosset, M., Lebel, T., Gaye, A.T., Rowell, D.P., Moufouma-Okia, W., Jacob, D., Rockel, B., Giorgi, F., regional downscaling of West African precipitation. Atmospheric Science Letters 12, 75–82.

Pi, A., Bc, A., &Bogbenda, A. (2017). Simulating the effect of climate change on the output of major crops in Benue State Nigeria, 5(4), 594–602.

Regh, T., Bossa, A. Y., &Diekkrüger, B. (2014). Scenario-based simulations of the impacts of rainfall variability and management options on maize production in Benin, 9(46), 3393–3410. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2014.8757

 

Recensement Général de la Population et de L’Habitation (RGPH4). (2013). Effectifs de la Population des Villages et Quartiers de ville du Benin. Republique du Benin, Mai, 2-83.

Rosenthal, D. M., &Ort, D. R. (2012).Examining cassava’s potential to enhance food security under climate change.

Tropical Plant Biology, 5(1), pp. 30-38.

Tidjani, M.A., &Akponikpe,P.B.I. (2012).Evaluation des stratégies paysannes d’adaptation aux changements climatiques : cas de la production du maïs au nord-bénin. African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 20, 425–441.

 

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Uger, F. I. (2017). Impact of Climate Variability on Yam Production in Benue State: an Empirical Analysis, 4(2), 14–23.

Conservation : En RDC, bientôt l’on peut payer près de 3000 $ et tuer légalement un éléphant

En République démocratique du Congo, la conservation risque de perdre son sens dans la mesure où un décret en gestation pourrait permettre au chasseur de se taper un éléphant entier en payant sa taxe de 2 885 dollars américains. De même, il peut consommer la viande d’un gorille entier en s’acquittant légalement de sa taxe de 1 925 dollars américains. Cette mesure du gouvernement a été dénoncée lors d’une communication du directeur général de l’ICCN, Cosma

« Avec cette mesure visant à maximiser les revenus, l’Institut congolais pour la conservation de la nature (ICCN) ne pourra pas faire son travail de préservation des espèces en danger de disparition », a déclaré Cosma Wilungula.

Dans une décision conjointe ce mois-ci, les ministères de l’Environnement et des Finances de la RDC ont déclaré que tuer, posséder ou vendre des espèces protégées serait autorisé moyennant le paiement d’une taxe.

« Il en coûte maintenant 2 885 $ pour tuer un éléphant de forêt, tandis que le montant pour tuer, manger ou vendre un gorille de montagne est de 1 925 $. Ce décret supprime (le crime) le trafic illégal d’espèces protégées », a déploré Monsieur Wilungula, avertissant que les bailleurs de fonds ne paieraient pas environ 32 millions de dollars utilisés pour la conservation chaque année si la règle était maintenue.

Dans cette logique, l’Union européenne qui met des paquets dans la conservation dans les cinq aires protégées de la RDC continuerait-elle à s’y investir ? Rien n’est moins rassurant si la RDC maintient sa décision de légaliser le braconnage dans ses aires protégées., pour renflouer les caisses de l’Etat.

« Les paiements d’impôts relativement bas créeraient une incitation au profit pour le braconnage, l’ivoire d’éléphant coûtant jusqu’à 600 dollars par kilogramme (2,2 livres) sur le marché local et un bébé gorille d’une valeur de 100 000 dollars », a informé le directeur général de l’ICCN.

Notons par ailleurs que le Comité du patrimoine mondial de l’UNESCO a retiré le vaste parc national de la Salonga en RDC d’une liste de sites menacés, louant les efforts de conservation, notamment pour les éléphants de forêt et les bonobos.

Alfredo Prince NTUMBA, avec AFP

 

Wilungula, ce jeudi 22 juillet, à Kinshasa

NEW DEAL FOR NATURE AND PEOPLE: BOOKLET OF BEST PRACTICES

The 2020 Living Planet Index shows that global populations of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and fish have suffered an average 68% decline in less than half a century (from 1970 to 2016). The main cause of this dramatic decline is habitat loss and degradation, including deforestation, driven by how we as humanity produce food. Nature powers industry and enterprise but we are using up ‘natural capital’ and degrading natural systems faster than nature can replenish and restore them, exceeding Earth’s overall bio capacity by 58% according to Ecological Foot printing. Over this decade, we have an incredible opportunity to make an ambitious global commitment to restore nature through the New Deal for Nature and People. We believe that people and nature can thrive together – we all have a part to play. Only a global coalition of the willing can make all this happen. In order to address those challenges, African Network of Young Leaders for Peace and Sustainable Development set in 2020 the New deal for Nature and people Coalition of civil society organizations. Under the leadership of African network of Young Leaders for Peace and Sustainable Development, African youths and civil society organizations have drafted and started the implementation of two regional position papers on COVID19 and pandemics and towards a strong post 2020 Global Biodiversity Framework for a green growth resumption in Africa and in the world. The ND4NPC Best practices booklet aims to valorise best practices of civil society organisations in this frame. The ND4NPC booklet will be issued every trimester of the year.

 

READ THE FULL BOOKLET HERE

AFRICAN’S PEACE AND SECURITY

Gone are simply the days when African ‘Huge Men’ propagated themselves in patterns of proceeded with initiative and force. The contemporary African populace is turning out to be all the more politically illuminated and their political direction has moved from the since quite a while ago settled political culture to more develop vote-based advancement. The breezes of progress are seething across the district thus summoned ‘third termers’ are blurring. Today, something like 75% or a greater number of official organizations are intertwined with term limits, as indicated by the 2015 Afro barometer report. While service time restrictions been rejected in something like nine African nations like Niger, Chad, Rwanda, Cameroon, Togo, Uganda, Guinea, Djibouti and Gabon, some defiant political pioneers have endeavoured to clutch power through the instrumentality of protected control or genuine noncompliance to set up service time restraints. Some of these systems have thought that it was not difficult to do as such, by directing sacred control through parliamentarians. When their gathering holds the larger part in parliament, it turns out to be not difficult to accomplish residency lengthening. This political rationale has been seen in a large group of African nations, including Nigeria under President Olusegun Obasanjo looking for his third term after the finish of two terms. The stretching was later barricaded by the upper authoritative chamber – National Assembly.

 

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BUILDING PEACE AND SOLIDARITY

Advancing peace and solidarity within a nation or amongst nations is complicated and it can only be achieved with the help of collective action. The primary objective of any nation is to inculcate within its people a sense of unity and trust and to develop it both, nationally and internationally. 

Africa, just like every other continent has been facing numerous challenges as far as establishing peace and development are concerned, even after the launch of a good deal of peace initiatives. A large number of resources have been utilized to carve out peace agreements, which ultimately collapsed due to varied reasons. Peace and solidarity are the key elements of any normal nation.[1] It is the responsibility of both, the states and the people to maintain peace and solidarity amongst one another and any kind of violation of human rights is not appreciated at any level. It is very important to create and maintain balance between the traditional values and progressive values within and amongst the nations.

Mrs. Vidushi Verma

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[1]https://www.accord.org.za/ajcr-issues/african-approaches-to-building-peace-and-social-solidarity/

Bayaka, Bambuti, Batwa:Endangered people of Africa

We all are renowned with the existence of Pygmy people of Africa from our childhood obsession with the comic of masked hero called The Phantom. These indigenous hunters-gatherer people can be found southwestern skirts of Central African Republic and northern portion of Republic of the Congo, Cameroon, Tanzania, Uganda etc. They’re one of the oldest ethnic group dependent of an ancient stone-age group still adjusting into our modern culture. The average adult height of pygmies are  not more than 155 centimeters( 5 feet 1 inch), which has became they’re catastrophe against modern people. Pygmies neither educated nor have any knowledge regarding their rights, law, or basic sense of human needs. Pygmies also known as forest people’s standard of living is poor because of absence of medical treatment , schools, jobs, land rights etc. We can say they’re trapped behind the tall walls of societal discrimination.

 

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